DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

MECHANICAL POWER SYSTEM OF TONGCHEON-UI, AN ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK MADE BY HONG, DAE-YONG

홍대용이 제작한 천문시계 통천의의 기계동력시스템

  • MIHN, BYEONG-HEE (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • YUN, YONG-HYUN (National Science Museum) ;
  • KIM, SANG HYUK (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • KI, HO CHUL (Ancient Institute of Heritage)
  • 민병희 (한국천문연구원) ;
  • 윤용현 (국립중앙과학관) ;
  • 김상혁 (한국천문연구원) ;
  • 기호철 (고대문화재연구소)
  • Received : 2020.10.07
  • Accepted : 2020.11.30
  • Published : 2020.12.31

Abstract

Hong, Dae-Yong manufactured the Tongcheon-ui (Pan-celestial Armillary Sphere) with cooperating clock researcher Na, Kyeong-Jeok, and its craftsman An, Cheo-In, in Naju of Jeolla Province in 1760 ~ 1762. Tongcheon-ui is a kind of astronomical clock with an armillary sphere which is rotated by the force generated by a lantern clock's weight. In our study, we examine the lantern clock model of Tongcheon-ui through its description of the articles written by Hong himself. As his description, however, did not explain the detail of the mechanical process of the lantern clock, we investigate the remains of lantern clocks in the possession of Korea University Museum and Seoul National University Museum. Comparing with the clocks of these museums, we designed the lantern clock model of Tongcheon-ui which measures 115 mm (L) × 115 mm (W) × 307 mm (H). This model has used the structure of the striking train imitated from the Korea University Museum artifact and is also regulated by a foliot escapement which is connected to a going train for timekeeping. The orientation of the rotation of the going train and the striking train of our model makes a difference with the remains of both university museums. That is, on the rotation axis of the first gear set of Tongcheon-ui's lantern clock, the going and the striking trains take on a counterclockwise and clockwise direction, respectively. The weight of 6.4 kg makes a force driving these two trains to stick to the pulley on the twine pulling across two spike gears corresponding to the going train and the striking train. This weight below the pulley may travel down about 560 mm per day. We conclude that the mechanical system of Tongcheon-ui's lantern clock is slightly different from the Japanese style.

References

  1. An D. G., 2017, Korean translation of Seokdang Silki, Compilation Committee of Seokdang Silki, Honam Institute for Korean Studies (Gwangju), pp.101-148
  2. Denison, E. B., 1850, A Rudimentary Treatise on Clock and Watch Making. John Weale (London), pp.32-34
  3. Hahn Y. -H. & Nam M. -H., 1997, Reconstruction of the Armillary Spheres of Mid- Chosun: The Armillary Clocks of Yi Mihnchol, The Korean Journal for the History of Science, 19, 3
  4. Hahn Y. -H., 2003, Astronomical Clocks of Nongsugak, Korean Historical Review, Yoksa Hakbo, 177, 1-32.
  5. Hahn Y. -H. & Nam M. -H., 2008, Systems for Night-Watch Clepsydrae during Chosun Dynasty, The Journal of Korean studies, 143, 167
  6. Hahn Y. -H., Nam M. -H., & Lee S. -W., 2001, Water-Operated Armillary Clocks of the Choson Dynasty, The Journal of Korean History, 113, 57
  7. Hahn Y. -H. & Lee E. -H., 2011, Accomplishment of a Domestic Calendar System during the Late Goryo and the early Joseon period, The Journal of Korean studies, 155, 31
  8. Kim S. H., Lee K. -W., & Lee, Y. S., 2010, A Study on the Sundials of the Kang Family of Jinju, JASS, 27, 161 http://dx.doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2010.27.2.161 https://doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2010.27.2.161
  9. Kim. S. H., Mihn B. -H., Ahn Y. S., & Lee Y. S., 2011a, Inference on The Arrangement and Scale of The Ganuidae, PKAS, 26, 115 http://dx.doi.org/10.5303/PKAS.2011.26.3.115 https://doi.org/10.5303/PKAS.2011.26.3.115
  10. Kim S. H., Lee Y. S., & Lee M. S., 2011b, A Study on the Operation Mechanism of Ongnu, the Astronomical Clock in Sejong Era, JASS, 28, 79 https://doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2011.28.1.079 https://doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2011.28.1.079
  11. Kim S. H., 2012, Armillary Clock of Song, I-Yoeng, Korea Study Infomation (Paju), pp. 39-183
  12. Kim S. H., Yun Y. -H., Ham S. Y., Mihn B. -H., Ki H.-C., & Yoon M. K., 2017, A Study on an Analysis and Design of the Internal Structure of Heumgyeonggak-nu, JASS, 34, 171 https://doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2017.34.2.171 https://doi.org/10.5140/JASS.2017.34.2.171
  13. Kim, S. H., Mihn, B. -H., Seo, Y. -K., & Lee, Y. S., 2018, Life and Astronomical Contribution of Song, I-Yeong, PKAS, 33, 31
  14. Lee E. S., 1986, Analysis on Cheonsang-Yeolcha-Bunya-Jido, Sejong Studies Research, 1, 63
  15. Lee Y. S. & Kim S. H., 2007, Study on the Structure and Working Principle of Song I-yŏng's Armillary Clock, JASS, 24, 167
  16. Lee Y. J, 2010. The Automatic Chiming Clock Driven by Weights and Time System of the Joseon Dynasty and the Edo Period, Chungbuk National University MSc thesis.
  17. Lee J. -B., 2018, The Life and Scientific Technique of Choi Cheon-yak of Dongrae in the Late of Joseon Dynasty, Region and History, 43, 59 http://dx.doi.org/10.19120/cy.2018.10.43.59 https://doi.org/10.19120/cy.2018.10.43.59
  18. Lee J. -B., 2019, A Comparative Study on System of Weights and Measures in Early Modern Korea, China and Japan, History & the Boundaries, 110, 417
  19. Minn Y. G., 1975, Tychonic Theory Developed in the 17th Century Korea, The Journal of Korean Studies, 16, 1 https://doi.org/10.1353/jks.2011.0006
  20. Mihn B. -H., Kim. S. H., Lee K. -W., Ahn Y. S., & Lee Y. S., 2011, A Development History and Structural Feature of Sogyupyo in The Joseon Dynasty, PKAS, 26, 129 http://dx.doi.org/10.5303/PKAS.2011.26.3.129 https://doi.org/10.5303/PKAS.2011.26.3.129
  21. Mihn, B. -H., Ham S. Y., & Choi G. E., 2017, Concept on the Na Kyeong-Jeok's clock and its Structure in Proceeding of Conference on a Pioneer of a Practical Confucian, Seokdang, Na Kyeong-Jeok, Honam Institute for Korean Studies (Gwangju), 69-88
  22. Nam M. H., 1989, A Reconstruction of the Double-hour Annunciating Systems for the King Sejong's Striking Clepsydra, The Korean Journal for the History of Science, 11, 19
  23. Nam M. -H., Hahn Y. -H., Lee S. -W., & Yang P. -S., 1995, Armillary Spheres during the Chosen Dynasty, KonKuk University Academic Journal, 39, 519
  24. Nam M. H., 1998, On the Kim Don's Borugakki: A Reconstruction of Chagyongnu the Striking Clepsydra, The Journal of Korean History, 101, 75
  25. Nam M. -H., 2008, Ganuidae Observatory: Its past and Present - Restoration and Utilization of Sciecne and Technology-Related Cultureal Heritage of Gyeongbokgung, Gogung munhwa, 2, 84
  26. Nam K. U., 2011, Nam Byeongcheol's Time-checking Instrument in Nineteenth-century Korea, The Korean Journal for the History of Science, 33, 533
  27. Park S. R., 1981, Scientific Ideas of Hong Tae-Yong, Hankuk Hakpo (Journal of Korean Studies), 7, 2159
  28. Park S. R., 1995, Finding of Western Science in Tamhunseo written by Hong Tae-Yong, The Chin-Tan Society, 79, 247
  29. Sawada T., 1996, Japanese Clock (和時計), Dankosha(淡交社), pp.16-60
  30. Yun, G. I., 2005, New Edited Gyeongguk Daejeon, Sinseowon (Seoul), pp.21-103