홍대용이 제작한 천문시계 통천의의 기계동력시스템

  • MIHN, BYEONG-HEE (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • YUN, YONG-HYUN (National Science Museum) ;
  • KIM, SANG HYUK (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • KI, HO CHUL (Ancient Institute of Heritage)
  • 민병희 (한국천문연구원) ;
  • 윤용현 (국립중앙과학관) ;
  • 김상혁 (한국천문연구원) ;
  • 기호철 (고대문화재연구소)
  • Received : 2020.10.07
  • Accepted : 2020.11.30
  • Published : 2020.12.31


Hong, Dae-Yong manufactured the Tongcheon-ui (Pan-celestial Armillary Sphere) with cooperating clock researcher Na, Kyeong-Jeok, and its craftsman An, Cheo-In, in Naju of Jeolla Province in 1760 ~ 1762. Tongcheon-ui is a kind of astronomical clock with an armillary sphere which is rotated by the force generated by a lantern clock's weight. In our study, we examine the lantern clock model of Tongcheon-ui through its description of the articles written by Hong himself. As his description, however, did not explain the detail of the mechanical process of the lantern clock, we investigate the remains of lantern clocks in the possession of Korea University Museum and Seoul National University Museum. Comparing with the clocks of these museums, we designed the lantern clock model of Tongcheon-ui which measures 115 mm (L) × 115 mm (W) × 307 mm (H). This model has used the structure of the striking train imitated from the Korea University Museum artifact and is also regulated by a foliot escapement which is connected to a going train for timekeeping. The orientation of the rotation of the going train and the striking train of our model makes a difference with the remains of both university museums. That is, on the rotation axis of the first gear set of Tongcheon-ui's lantern clock, the going and the striking trains take on a counterclockwise and clockwise direction, respectively. The weight of 6.4 kg makes a force driving these two trains to stick to the pulley on the twine pulling across two spike gears corresponding to the going train and the striking train. This weight below the pulley may travel down about 560 mm per day. We conclude that the mechanical system of Tongcheon-ui's lantern clock is slightly different from the Japanese style.


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