Conceptual understanding of ubiquitous superconductivity

  • Received : 2020.11.15
  • Accepted : 2020.12.12
  • Published : 2020.12.31


Since the discovery of superconductivity, the unique and mysterious phenomenon has been observed in various metallic material systems. Now days, the superconductivity becomes ubiquitous because almost every metallic material system shows the superconductivity when it is cooled down enough. This ubiquity of the superconductivity is associated with the fermionic nature and itinerancy of electrons in metallic materials. Because fermions are governed by the Pauli's exclusion principle the total energy of fermions is much larger than that of bosons. Therefore, fermionic itinerant electrons are fundamentally instable. Itinerant electrons are able to find "a way" to lead them to their lowest possible energy state through an available bosonization (or pairing) process and Bose-Einstein condensation. Therefore, the lowest possible energy state of itinerant electrons will be a superconducting state, which is "their ultimate destination". This may explain the reason why the superconductivity is ubiquitous.


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