A Study on the Causality of Technology Culture of East Asian Roof Tile Making Technology Since the 17th Century

17세기 이후 동아시아 제와(製瓦)의 기술문화적 인과성

  • Kim, Hajin (Dept. of Convergence Cultural Heritage, Korea National University of Cultural Heritage)
  • 김하진 (한국전통문화대학교 문화유산융합학과)
  • Received : 2019.03.31
  • Accepted : 2019.05.04
  • Published : 2019.09.30


This paper aims to establish the technical style of roof tiles by analyzing East Asian roof tile making techniques. It will examine the existing main research data, such as excavation results and the subsequent analysis of the roof tiles' production traces, as well as references and transmitted techniques. Regions are grouped according to technical similarity, then grouped again by artistic styles of pattern and shape and by the technical styles of tools, procedures, and manpower plans. Accordingly, intends to find out whether an understanding of technical style can facilitate an understanding of not only cultural aspects, but also the causality of techniques. Korean, Chinese and Japanese tools were examined, and procedures for making roof tiles were classified into 4 groups. In a superficial way, China, Okinawa, Korea, and Honshu share similar technical traits. Research of procedural details and manpower plans revealed characteristics of each region. As a result, comparisons were made between each region's technical characteristics attempting to investigate their causes. The groups were classified according to their possessing techniques, but it was revealed that East Asia's shared production techniques were based on architectural methodss. The skill of "Pyeon Jeol(Clay Cutting)" classified according to its possessing techniques, turned out to be one such technique. Also, the procedure of technical localization based on the skill of "Ta-nal(Tapping)" showed that the condition of this technique was the power to localize in response to a transfer of techniques. Previous comparison parameters of artifacts would have been a similarity of style originated from exchanges between regions and stylistic characteristics of regions decided by the demander's taste of beauty. This methodology enlarges cultural perception and affords a positive basis of historical facts. However, it suggests the possibility of finding cultural aspects' origins by understanding the technical style and seeing same result in view of "technology culture."


  1. 국립고궁박물관, 2014, 류큐 왕국의 보물: 국립고궁박물관 특별전
  2. 국립문화재연구소, 1996, 중요무형문화재 제91호 제와장
  3. 문화재관리국 문화재연구소, 1994, 小川敬吉調査文化財資料
  4. 다카라 구라요시, 2008, 류큐 왕국, 소화
  5. Rudolf P. Hommel, 1937, 중국수공업지,
  6. 京都府立山城郷土資料館, 2014, 山城の瓦製作用具 わざの極意は道具にあり-山城の瓦づくり- 展示図録 35
  7. 奈良文化財硏究所, 2010, 古代東アジアの造瓦技術, 奈良文化財硏究所
  8. 島田貞彦, 1935, 造瓦, 岡書院
  9. 熊本市, 1932, 熊本市史(7) -加藤氏時代の熊本- (下), 熊本市
  10. 中国砖瓦工业协会组织, 2006, 中華砖瓦史话(China Brick & Tile Historiette), 北京嘉彩印刷有限公司
  11. 高正龍, 2010, 浮石寺의 瓦塼과 修理工事의 製瓦場 釜山大学 校考古学科 創設 20周年 記念 論文集, 釜山大学校 考古学科
  12. 김덕문, 2012, 첨성대 축조 규준방식과 드잡이기술에 대한 기술사적 접근 연구 문화재지 Vol.45, 국립문화재연구소, pp.92-103
  13. 김성구, 2007, 동아시아 고대기와의 변천 한국기와학회 학술대회 발표자료집 Vol.5, 한국기와학회, pp.7-27
  14. 김하진, 2019, 조선 후기 번와소의 기와 생산체계와 제작기술, 한국전통문화대학교 석사학위논문
  15. 임승덕, 2011, 사비기 타날문토기 제작기법 연구, 공주대학교 대학원
  16. 최맹식, 2003, 삼국시대 평기와에 관한 연구, 단국대학교 대학원
  17. 藤島亥冶郞, 1939, 朝鮮瓦の製法に就いて 종합고와연구
  18. 木村友紀, 2005, 東アジアの造瓦技術 -日本における滴水瓦の導入と変遷-, 차세대 인문사회연구, pp.217-235
  19. 上原静, 2013, 明朝系瓦と琉球近世瓦の名称 壺屋焼物博物館紀要 Vol.14, pp.1-11
  20. 佐原眞, 1972, 平瓦桶巻作り 考古学雑誌 58巻 2号, 日本考古学協会
  21. 谷口製瓦における瓦製作道具調査會, 2015. 12, 谷口製瓦における瓦製作道具報告書 -富山県砺波市福山に所在する現代瓦製作道具の調査-
  22. 名神高速道路內遺跡祖師會, 1997, 梶原瓦窯跡 發掘調査報告書