Garden Construction and Landscape Characteristics of the Seochulji Pond Area in Gyeongju during the Middle of the Joseon Dynasty

조선 중기 경주 서출지(書出池) 일원의 정원 조영과 경관 특성

Kim, Hyung-suk;Sim, Woo-kyung

  • Received : 2018.11.19
  • Accepted : 2019.05.13
  • Published : 2019.06.30


This study examined the background of Gyeongju Seochulji Pond (world heritage, historic site No. 138), a historic pond in Sam-guk-yu-sa (三國遺事), and its landscaping period when it served as the garden of the Pungcheon Lim clan (豊川 任氏) in the middle of the Joseon dynasty. For this study, a literature review of poetry, prose, and a personal anthology, and a field survey were conducted. Changes in the landscape were analyzed by comparing the landscape appearing in the literature of the Joseon period with past photographs. The results were as follows: First, even though the function and landscape at that time cannot be guessed as the objective ground from Silla to the early part of the Joseon dynasty is insufficient, it has been managed as a Byeolseo (別墅) garden as Pungcheon Lim's family resided in the area of Eastern-Namsan Mountain during the Joseon dynasty. At that time, Seochulji Pond was recognized as a historic place. It functioned as the garden of Pungcheon Lim's family as Lim Jeok (任勣, 1612~1672) built the Yiyodang pavilion (二樂堂). Second, in the literature, the Yiyodang pavilion has been called Gaekdang (客堂), Jeongsa (精舍), Byeolgak (別閣) and Byeolseo, etc. It can be seen as Nu and Jeong (樓亭), utilized for various uses. Because of this, the name Bingheoru Pavilion (憑虛樓) has mostly been in common use. Third, Seochulji Pond was positioned where the scenery is beautiful, with Gyeongju Mt. Namsan (Mt. Geumo) in the background and with a wide field and the Namcheon River flowing in the front. This was typical of Byeolseo gardens of the Joseon dynasty, combining human environments with natural environments. Fourth, the relationship with the Byeolseo garden disappeared as the head of Pungcheon Lim's family added a temple, lotus flowers, pine trees, and a bamboo forest as described in the old poetry and prose. Currently, the landscape does not appear to be significantly different from that as development has not occurred in the area of Seochulji Pond. Also, crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), which now symbolizes the Seochulji Pond, was not identified in the old poetry or past photographs and is not old enough to confirm whether it was prominent at the time. Through this study, it is necessary to reconsider the spatial meanings of the gardens of the Joseon dynasty period and not to highlight the area of Seochulji Pond as a place in the legend. This is a cultural asset in the area of Eastern-Namsan Mountain and has an important meaning in terms of garden history.


Byeolseo garden;Gyeongju Mt. Namsan;Pungcheon Lim;world heritage;Yiyodang Pavilion