A Study on Glass Mirror Trade and its Characteristics of Craft after Joseon Dynasty

조선 후기 유리거울의 수입과 공예품의 특징

  • Park, Jinkyung (Dept. of Art History, Hongik University Graduate School)
  • 박진경 (홍익대학교 미술사학과)
  • Received : 2019.09.30
  • Accepted : 2019.11.12
  • Published : 2019.12.30


This paper examines the trade and development aspects of glass mirrors through the literature records of the Joseon Dynasty, and studies the characteristics of existing glass mirror crafts by referring to the terms and types shown in the literature. The glass mirror in the records had called western mirrors(西洋鏡, 洋鏡), glass mirrors(玻璃鏡, 玻瓈鏡), stone mirrors(石鏡), etc. Glass mirrors were imported mainly through trade with Russia and the Qing Dynasty since the 17th century and were banned from importation in the late Joseon Dynasty. These mirrors were something new that caused a great stirring in Joseon society in the 18th century, and in the 19th century, it grew larger as a commodity needed for everyday life, especially with trade with Japan. At that time, glass mirrors were used for various purposes, such as installing large glass at a store, which were not the standard mirror usage of confirming one's appearance. These mirrors surprised Koreans in Joseon who experienced them at Yanjing Liulichang(燕京 琉璃廠) in the 18th and 19th centuries. As a result, the demand for glass mirrors rapidly increased and quickly surpassed that of bronze mirrors. Consequentially, new crafts using glass mirrors instead of bronze mirrors in Joseon began to be produced and used after the 18th century. In particular, integrated flat boards of glass mirrors were developed as crafts used indoors. It was convenient to use the hair comb box, a long-time presence in Joseon society, with the bronze mirror. This kind of mirror remained apparent in various genre paintings, including the Taepyeong Seongsido(太平城市圖, 'A Thriving City in a Peaceful Era') collected the National Museum of Korea which reflect its populism of the times. Also, the Mirror Stand(鏡臺) used in the Qing Period was produced in Joseon, but there was a difference in the way of making the drawers and box shapes between two nations. On the other hand, the Face Mirror(面鏡) was made to look at the face. Various crafts made with the aesthetic sense of Joseon, such as the ox horn inlaying craft technique, were produced with auspicious designs. In the 19th century, glass mirrors were imported from European countries, such as France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, however after the end of the 19th century Japanese crafts were popular. Glass mirrors, which were popular in the Meiji and Taisho eras of Japan, were imported and also the Mirror Screen(鏡屛) using large glass mirrors were used. In particular, the mirror screen had developed wood furniture since the previous time, which were used for banquets and large spaces, such as the drawing room, and were imported from China and Japan. In addition, the western architectural effect of attaching a mirror to the wall was also attempted to adjust the brightness of the space and introduce another image and scenery in the mirror. This was done at Deoksugung Palace's Seokjojeon.


  1. 艮翁先生文集
  2. 各司謄錄
  3. 經世遺表
  4. 警修堂全藁
  5. 薊山紀程
  6. 東文選
  7. 戊午燕行錄
  8. 赴燕日記
  9. 心田稿
  10. 燕轅直指
  11. 耳溪集
  12. 日槎集略
  13. 日省錄
  14. 正祖實錄
  15. 靑莊館全書
  16. 海槎日記
  17. 국립고궁박물관, 2007, 국립고궁박물관 전시안내도록, p.132
  18. 국립고궁박물관, 2012, 덕혜옹주: 덕혜옹주 탄생 100주년, pp.146-147
  19. 국외소재문화재재단, 2015, 조선시대의 공예: 일본민예관 한국문화재 명품선, p.216
  20. 강명관, 2015, 조선에 온 서양 물건들, pp.156-157
  21. 경상북도문화재연구원, 2008, 김천 문당동 유적, pp.342-345
  22. 단국대학교 석주선기념박물관, 2012, 조선 마지막 공주 德溫家의 遺物, p.129
  23. 문화재청 덕수궁관리소, 2015, 석조전 대한제국역사관, pp.124-139
  24. 燕行記事
  25. 英親王嘉禮時器皿錄
  26. 서울역사박물관, 2003, 운현궁 생활유물 I, p.152
  27. 숭실대학교 한국기독교박물관, 2008, 기산 김준근 조선풍속도 pp.122-127
  28. 이난영, 2003, 고려경 연구, 신유, p.12
  29. 김문식, 2008, 조선후기 지식인의 러시아 이해 한국실학연구 no.16, pp.349-378
  30. 김성진, 1998, 朝鮮後期 金海의 生活相에 미친 日本文物 인문논총 52, pp.291-312
  31. 김윤희, 2014, 대한제국기 덕수궁 석조전 건립과 서양가구 유입 문화재 vol.47 no.3, pp.4-23
  32. 박기수, 1998, 淸代 廣東의 對外貿易과 廣東商人 明淸史硏究 第9輯, pp.55-110
  33. 이지선, 2010, 화장거울에 관한 小考 코리아나 화장박물관 한국의 화장도구, 코리아나 화장박물관, pp.48-56
  34. 이철성, 2010, 조선후기 연행무역과 수출입 품목 韓國實學硏究 20, pp.29-79
  35. 李弘斗, 1998, 17세기 對淸交易에 관한 연구 國史館論叢 第81輯, pp.73-110
  36. 故宮博物院 外, 1987, 淸代廣東貢品, 香港: 香港中文大學文物館, pp.10-19
  37. 沈阳故宫博物院, 2016, 锦绣宫闈: 清代后宫生活用品集, 瀋陽: 遼寧民族出版社, p.67
  38. 吳曉筠, 2015, 乾隆皇帝的鏡子-關於鑑賞, 典藏與使用的選擇 皇帝的鏡子: 清宮鏡鑑文化與典藏, 台北: 國立故宮博物院, pp.288-301
  39. 吴琼, 2018, 明清时期镜子的流变与社会生活, 天津: 南开大学 中国史 硕士學位論文, pp.93-95, 117-120
  40. 岡庸一殿, 1989, 最新韓國事情, pp.792-793
  41. 小泉和子, 2012, 和家具, 東京:日本図書センター, p.135
  42. 菅谷文則, 1991, 日本人と鏡, 京都: 同朋舎出版, pp.25-27
  43. 青木豊, 1992, 和鏡の文化史:水鑑から魔鏡まで, 東京: 刀水書房, pp.58-59
  44. Graham Child, 1990, World Mirrors 1650-1900, London: Sotheby, pp.158-178
  45. Nancy Berliner, 2010, The emperor's private paradise: treasures from the Forbidden City, New Haven: Yale University Press, p.175
  46. Timon Screech, 1996, The lens within the heart the Western scientific gaze and popular imagery in later Edo Japan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.161-165