A Study on the Change of Materials and Fabrication Techniques of Stone Figures in Royal Tombs of the Joseon Period - Focusing on Shindobi, Pyo-Seok, and Sang-Seok -

조선시대 왕릉 석물의 재료와 제작 방법 변화에 관한 연구 - 신도비와 표석, 상석을 중심으로 -

  • Cha, Moonsung (Dept. of Intangible Cultural Heritage Studies, Korean National University of Cultural Heritage)
  • 차문성 (한국전통문화대학교 무형유산학과)
  • Received : 2019.09.18
  • Accepted : 2019.11.06
  • Published : 2019.12.30


Bi-Seok is a treasure trove of funeral rites and an important cultural asset that can shed light on the historical and social history of calligraphy, but research of the topic is still insignificant. In particular, research on the production method of Bi-Seok remains an unproven field. The production of Bi-Seok can be roughly divided into ma-jeong (refining stone), sculpture, and the Buk-chil (process of engraving letters) process. This article reveals some facts: First, performing ma-jeong to the Sang-Seok, Honyu-Seok, Bi-seok, which are known to be God's things. This process is needed because of the change in the perception of the Honyu-Seok due to the settlement and propagation of Confucian ceremonial rituals in the times of hardship in 1592 and 1636. As the crafting process of ma-jeong did not remain concrete, it was only possible to examine the manufacturing process of Bi-Seok through its materials and tools. Second, the rapid proliferation of Oh-Seok and Sa-jeo-chwi-yong (purchase of things made by private citizens) in the Yeongjo era has great importance in social and cultural history. When the Gang-Hwa-Seok of the commodity were exhausted, the Oh-Seok that was used by Sadebu (upper civil class) were used in the tomb of Jangneung, which made Oh-Seok popular among people. In particular, the use of Oh-Seok and the Ma-Jeong process could minimize chemical and physical damage. Third, the writing method of the Bi-seok is Buk-chil. After Buk-Chil of Song Si-Yeol was used on King Hyojong's tomb, the Buk-Chil process ( printing the letters on the back of the stone and rubbing them to make letters) became the most popular method in Korea and among other East Asian countries, and the fact that it was institutionalized to this scale was quite impressive. Buk-Chil became more sophisticated by using red ink rather than black ink due to the black color that results from Oh-Seok. Fourth, the writing method changes in the late Joseon Dynasty. Until the time of Yeongjo's regime, when inscribing, the depth of the angle was based on the thickness of the stroke, thus representing the shade. This technique, of course, did not occur at every Pyo-Seok or Shindobi, but was maintained by outstanding artisans belonging to government agencies. Therefore, in order to manufacture Bi-Seok, Suk-seok, YeonJeong, Ma-jeong, Jeong-Gan, ChodoSeoIp, Jung-Cho, Ip-gak, Gyo-Jeong, and Jang-Hwang, a process was needed to make one final product. Although all of these methods serve the same purpose of paying respects and propagandizing the great work of deceased persons, through this analysis, it was possible to see the whole process of Pyo-Seok based upon the division of techniques and the collaboration of the craftsmen.


  1. 大明會典
  2. 宣祖穆陵遷奉都監儀軌
  3. 承政院日記
  4. 神懿王后齊陵神道碑營建廳儀軌
  5. 列聖誌狀
  6. 英祖魂殿都監儀軌
  7. 懿仁王后山陵都監儀軌
  8. 仁祖山陵都監儀軌
  9. 仁祖長陵山陵都監儀軌
  10. 仁祖長陵遷陵都監都廳儀軌
  11. 仁顯王后國葬都監儀軌
  12. 朝鮮王朝實錄
  13. 哲宗大王國葬都監儀軌
  14. 獻陵碑石重建廳儀軌
  15. 顯宗國葬都監儀軌
  16. 厚陵顯陵光陵敬陵昌陵宣陵靖陵表石營建廳儀軌
  17. 김민규, 2019, 조선시대 능표비 연구, 동국대학교 박사학위논문
  18. 김송이, 2006, 고려시대 탑비 연구, 이화여자대학교 석사학위논문
  19. 김왕직, 1998, 건축경제사, 명지대학교 박사학위논문
  20. 김우림, 2007, 서울.경기 지역의 조선시대 사대부 묘제 연구, 고려대학교 박사학위논문
  21. 문화재청, 조선왕릉종합학술보고서 1-9권, 국립문화재연구소
  22. 박상준, 2003, 신라 하대 탑비 연구, 동국대학교 석사학위논문
  23. 김영희, 2009, 역주 사직악기조성청의궤, 국립국악원
  24. 이민식, 1997, 조선시대 능표비에 관한 연구, 한성대학교 석사학위논문
  25. 王充, 論衡 雷虛篇
  26. 윤진영, 2004, 조선 왕실 지석류 탁본의 제작 과정, 한국학중앙연구원
  27. 한국학중앙연구원, 2005, 장서각소장탁본자료집 권3
  28. 정도전, 三峰集 권14
  29. 정해득, 조선시대 묘제 석물에 관한 고찰 경기묘제석조미술 조사보고서 학술발표회, 경기문화재단
  30. 조두순, 2000, 대전회통 경공장 해제, 한국법제연구원
  31. 최공호, 2018, 조선 전기 경공장의 기술 통제와 분업 미술사논단 47
  32. 최영성 편역, 2018, 전통공예문헌자료집성, 이른아침
  33. 한국정신문화연구원, 1985, 경국대전 번역편
  34. 한국학중앙연구원, 2009, 숙빈최씨자료집 4