The torsional behavior of reinforced self-compacting concrete beams

  • Aydin, Abdulkadir C. (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University) ;
  • Bayrak, Baris (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University)
  • Received : 2018.09.12
  • Accepted : 2019.06.04
  • Published : 2019.11.25


Torsional behaviors of beams are investigated for the web reinforcement and the concrete type. Eight beams with self-compacting concrete (SCC) and twelve beams with conventional concrete (CC) were manufactured and tested. All the models manufactured as the $250{\times}300{\times}1500mm$ were tested according to relevant standards. Two concrete types, CC and SCC were designed for 20 and 40 MPa compressive strength. From the point of web reinforcement, the web spacing was chosen as 80 and 100 mm. The rotation angles of the concrete beams subjected to pure torsional moment as well as the cracks occurring in the beams, the ultimate and critical torsional moments were observed. Moreover, the ultimate torsional moments obtained experimentally were compared with the values evaluated theoretically according to some relevant standards and theories. The closest estimations were observed for the skew-bending theory and the Australian Standard.


  1. ACI 318-08 (2008), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, USA.
  2. Alhussainy, F., Hasan, H.A., Rogic, S., Sheikh, M.N. and Hadi, M.N. (2016), "Direct tensile testing of self-compacting concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 112, 903-906.
  3. AS3600 (2001), Australian Standard, Concrete Structures, AS3600-2001, Sydney, Australia.
  4. Avinash, S.P. and Parekar, R.S. (2010), "Steel fiber reinforced concrete beams under combined torsion-bending-shear", J. Civil Eng. (IEB), 38(1), 31-38.
  5. Aydin, A.C. (2007), "Self compactability of high volume hybrid fiber reinforced concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 21(6), 1149-1154.
  6. Aydin, A.C., Arslan, A. and Gul, R. (2007), "Mesoscale simulation of cement based materials' time-dependent behavior", Comput. Mater. Sci., 41(1), 20-26.
  7. Aydin, A.C., Karakoc, M.B., Duzgun, O.A. and Bayraktutan, M.S. (2010), "Effect of low quality aggregates on the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete", Scientif. Res. Essay., 5(10), 1133-1140.
  8. Aydin, A.C., Kilic, M., Maali, M. and Sagiroglu, M. (2015a), "Experimental assessment of the semi-rigid connections behavior with angles and stiffeners", J. Constr. Steel Res., 114, 338-348.
  9. Aydin, A.C., Maali, M., Kilic, M. and Sagiroglu, M. (2015b), "Experimental investigation of sinus beams with end-plate connections", Thin Wall. Struct., 97, 35-43.
  10. Aydin, A.C., Oz, A., Polat, R. and Mindivan, H. (2015c), "Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the properties of self-compacting-concrete containing microsilica", Sadhana, 40(4), 1361-1371.
  11. Behera, G.C., Rao, T.G. and Rao, C. (2016), "Torsional behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with ferrocement U-jacketing-experimental study", Case Stud. Constr. Mater., 4, 15-31.
  12. Bentur, A., Igarashi, S.I. and Kovler, K. (2001), "Prevention of autogenous shrinkage in high-strength concrete by internal curing using wet lightweight aggregates", Cement Concrete Res., 31(11), 1587-1591.
  13. Bernardo, L. and Lopes, S. (2013), "Plastic analysis and twist capacity of high-strength concrete hollow beams under pure torsion", Eng. Struct., 49, 190-201.
  14. Chalioris, C.E. and Karayannis, C.G. (2013), "Experimental investigation of RC beams with rectangular spiral reinforcement in torsion", Eng. Struct., 56, 286-297.
  15. Csikos, A. and Hegedus, I. (1998), "Torsion of reinforced concrete beams", Research Report No. H-1521, Technical University of Budapest, Department of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Budapest, Hungary.
  16. Deeb, R. (2013), "Flow of self-compacting concrete", Ph.D. Dissertation, Cardiff University, Cardiff.
  17. Deifalla, A. and Ghobarah, A. (2014), "Behavior and analysis of inverted T-shaped RC beams under shear and torsion", Eng. Struct., 68, 57-70.
  18. Djelloul, O.K., Menadi Wardeh, B.G. and Kenai, S. (2018), "Performance of self-compacting concrete made with coarse and fine recycled concrete aggregates and ground granulated blast-furnace slag", Adv. Concrete Constr., 6(2), 103-121.
  19. EFNARC (2005), The European Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete: Specification, Production and Use, the Self-Compacting Concrete, European Project Group.
  20. EN (2004), Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures- Part 1-2: General Rules-Structural Fire Design, European Standards, London, UK.
  21. EN (2012), Cement-Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara, Turkey.
  22. Gesoglu, M., Guneyisi, E., Oz, H.O., Taha, I. and Yasemin, M.T. (2015), "Failure characteristics of self-compacting concretes made with recycled aggregates", Constr. Build. Mater., 98, 334-344.
  23. Gesoglu, M., Guneyisi, E., Ozturan, T., Oz, H.O. and Asaad, D.S. (2014), "Self-consolidating characteristics of concrete composites including rounded fine and coarse fly ash lightweight aggregates", Compos. Part B: Eng., 60, 757-763.
  24. Gesoglu, M., Guneyisi, E.M., Kocabag, E., Bayram, V. and Mermerdas, K. (2012), "Fresh and hardened characteristics of self-compacting concretes made with combined use of marble powder, limestone filler, and fly ash", Constr. Build. Mater., 37, 160-170.
  25. Golafshani, E.M. and Ashour, A. (2016), "Prediction of self-compacting concrete elastic modulus using two symbolic regression techniques", Autom. Constr., 64, 7-19.
  26. Gunasekaran, K., Chandar, P.S., Annadurai, R. and Satyanarayanan, K. (2016), "Augmentation of mechanical and bond strength of coconut shell concrete using quarry dust", Eur. J. Environ. Civil Eng., 1-12.
  27. Hsu, T.T. (1968), "Torsion of structural concrete-plain cocnrete rectangular sections", Spec. Publ., 18, 203-238.
  28. Kaminski, M. and Pawlak, W. (2011), "Load capacity and stiffness of angular cross section reinforced concrete beams under torsion", Arch. Civil Mech. Eng., 11(4), 885-903.
  29. Khayat, K. (1999), "Workability, testing, and performance of self-consolidating concrete", Mater. J., 96(3), 346-353.
  30. Kilic, A., Atis, C.D., Yasar, E. and Ozcan, F. (2003), "High-strength lightweight concrete made with scoria aggregate containing mineral admixtures", Cement Concrete Res., 33(10), 1595-1599.
  31. Kim, Y.J., Choi, Y.W. and Lachemi, M. (2010), "Characteristics of self-consolidating concrete using two types of lightweight coarse aggregates", Constr. Build. Mater., 24(1), 11-16.
  32. Kurt, M., Gul, M.S., Gul, R., Aydin, A.C. and Kotan, T. (2016a), "The effect of pumice powder on the self-compactability of pumice aggregate lightweight concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 103, 36-46.
  33. Kurt, M., Kotan, T., Gul, M.S., Gul, R. and Aydin, A.C. (2016b), "The effect of blast furnace slag on the self-compactability of pumice aggregate lightweight concrete", Sadhana, 41(2), 253-264.
  34. Kuyt, B. (1968), "Ultimate torsional resistance of rectangular reinforced concrete beams", Concrete, 2(12), 522.
  35. Lampert, P. and Thurlimann, B. (1968), Torsionsversuche an Stahlbetonbalken.
  36. Lopes, S. and Bernardo, L. (2014), "Cracking and failure mode in HSC hollow beams under torsion", Constr. Build. Mater., 51, 163-178.
  37. Maali, M., Aydin, A.C. and Sagiroglu, M. (2015), "Investigation of innovative steel runway beam in industrial building", Sadhana, 40(7), 2239-2251.
  38. Maali, M., Kilic, M. and Aydin, A.C. (2016), "Experimental model of the behaviour of bolted angles connections with stiffeners", Int. J. Steel Struct., 16(3), 719-733.
  39. Maali, M., Kilic, M. and Aydin, A.C. (2019). "Experimental behavior of bolted connections with stiffeners", Steel Constr. Des. Res., 12(2), 105-113.
  40. Maali, M., Kilic, M., Sagiroglu, M. and Aydin, A.C. (2017), "Experimental model for predicting the semi-rigid connections' behaviour with angles and stiffeners", Adv. Struct. Eng., 20(6), 884-895.
  41. Maali, M., Sagiroglu, M. and Solak, M.S. (2018), "Experimental behavior of screwed beam-to-column connections in cold-formed steel frames", Arab. J. Geosci., 11(9), 205.
  42. Naik, M.P.P. and Vyawahare, M. (2013). "Strength and durability investigations on self-consolidated concrete with pozzolanic filler and inert filler", International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, ESRSA Publications.
  43. Nehdi, M., Pardhan, M. and Koshowski, S. (2004), "Durability of self-consolidating concrete incorporating high-volume replacement composite cements", Cement Concrete Res., 34(11), 2103-2112.
  44. Okrajnov-Bajic, R. and Vasovic, D. (2009), "Self-compacting concrete and its application in contemporary architectural practice", Spatium, 20, 28-34.
  45. Patil, S.P. and Sangle, K.K. (2016), "Tests of steel fibre reinforced concrete beams under predominant torsion", J. Build. Eng., 6, 157-162.
  46. Pineaud, A., Pimienta, P., Remond, S. and Carre, H. (2016), "Mechanical properties of high performance self-compacting concretes at room and high temperature", Constr. Build. Mater., 112, 747-755.
  47. Punmia, B., Jain, A.K. and Jain, A. K. (2007), Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete, Firewall Media.
  48. Rowe, R.E. (1987), Handbook to British Standard BS 8110: 1985, Structural Use of Concrete, Palladian Publications.
  49. Sadek, D.M., El-Attar, M.M. and Ali, H.A. (2016), "Reusing of marble and granite powders in self-compacting concrete for sustainable development", J. Clean. Prod., 121, 19-32.
  50. Salhi, M., Ghrici, M., Li, A. and Bilir, T. (2017), "Effect of curing treatments on the material properties of hardened self-compacting concrete", Adv. Concrete Constr., 5(4), 359-375.
  51. TS500 (2000), Requirements for Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
  52. Turkmen, I., Oz, A. and Aydin, A.C. (2010), "Characteristics of workability, strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity of SCC containing zeolite and slag", Scientif. Res. Essay., 5(15), 2055-2064.
  53. Valipour, H.R. and Foster, S.J. (2010), "Nonlinear reinforced concrete frame element with torsion", Eng. Struct., 32(4), 988-1002.
  54. Verma, N. and Misra, A.K. (2015), "Bond characteristics of reinforced TMT bars in self compacting concrete and normal cement concrete", Alexandria Eng. J., 54(4), 1155-1159.
  55. Yang, I.H., Joh, C., Lee, J.W. and Kim, B.S. (2013), "Torsional behavior of ultra-high performance concrete squared beams", Eng. Struct., 56, 372-383.