Enzyme Inhibitory and Anti-Proliferation Effects of Peanut Skin Extracts Depending on Cultivar

품종별 땅콩 종피 추출물의 효소저해활성 및 암세포주 증식억제 효과

  • Kim, Min Young (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Joo (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Yu-Young (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Mi Hyang (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Jin Young (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Byoungkyu (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Byong Won (Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • 김민영 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 김현주 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 이유영 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 김미향 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 이진영 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 이병규 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과) ;
  • 이병원 (국립식량과학원 중부작물부 수확후이용과)
  • Received : 2019.09.19
  • Accepted : 2019.10.14
  • Published : 2019.10.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of enzyme activity and anti-proliferation of human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, NCI-H460 and MCF-7) of peanut skin depending on cultivars (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. K-Ol, cv. Sinpalkwang, cv. Daan, cv. Heuksaeng) and extraction solvent. Peanut skin was extracted with 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, 80% acetone, and distilled water, followed by analysis of the enzyme inhibitory activity and anticancer activity. Methanol extract of Daan cultivar most effectively inhibited ${\alpha}$-gluosidase (65.08%, 0.025 mg/mL), tyrosinase (82.49%, 2 mg/mL) and ACE (73.61%, 10 mg/mL). The inhibitory effect of peanut skin extracts on colon cancer cell (HCT-116), lung cancer cell (NCI-H460) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7) growth were investigate using MTT assay. The highest anti-proliferation of cancer cell line of peanut skin extracts was observed in the methanol extract of Daan cultivar. The cell viability on HCT 116, NCI-H460 and MCF-7 cell lines of methanol extracts from peanut skin of Daan cultivar was 48.13%, 41.03%, and 36.02% at $200{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. These results suggest that peanut skin extracts may mediate physiological activity, and provide valuable information for the use of peanut byproduct as a functional food material.


peanut skin;cultivars;enzyme inhibitory activity;anticancer activity


Grant : 국내 육성땅콩의 생리활성 검정

Supported by : 농촌진흥청


  1. Avelar MM, Gouvea CM. 2012. Procyanidin B2 cytotoxicity to MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Indian J Pharm Sci 74:351-355
  2. Bai R, Cui Y, Luo L, Yuan D, Wei Z, Yu W, Sun B. 2019. A semisynthetic approach for the simultaneous reaction of grape seed polymeric procyanidins with catechin and epicatechin to obtain oligomeric procyanidins in large scale. Food Chem 278:609-616
  3. Chai WM, Ou-Yang C, Huang Q, Lin MZ, Wang YX, Xu KL, Huang WY, Pang DD. 2018. Antityrosinase and antioxidant properties of mung bean seed proanthocyanidins: Novel insights into the inhibitory mechanism. Food Chem 260:27-36
  4. Chen L, Yan F, Chen W, Zhao L, Zhang J, Lu Q, Liu R. 2018. Procyanidin from peanut skin induces antiproliferative effect in human prostate carcinoma cells DU145. Chem Biol Interact 288:12-23
  5. Choy YY, Fraga M, Mackenzie GG, Waterhouse AL, Cremonini E, Oteiza PI. 2016. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in procyanidin-mediated suppression of human colorectal cancer cell growth. Mol Carcinog 55:2196-2209
  6. Cushman DW, Cheung HS. 1971. Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Phamacol 20:1637-1648
  7. De Camargo AC, Regitano-d'Arce MAB, Shahidi F. 2017a. Phenolic profile of peanut by-products: Antioxidant potential and inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and lipase activities. J Am Oil Chem Soc 94:959-971
  8. De Camargo AC, Regitano-d'Arce MAB, Rasera GB, Canniatti-Brazaca SG, do Prado-Silva L, Alvarenga VO, Sant'Ana AS, Shahidi F. 2017b. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects. Food Chem 237:538-544
  9. Godoy S, Roeckel M, Fernandez K. 2012. Influence of the structure and composition of the Pais grape proanthocyanidins on the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). Food Chem 134:346-350
  10. Gua J, Jin YS, Han W, Shim TH, Sa JH, Wang MH. 2006. Studies for component analysis, antioxidative activity and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity from Equisetum arvense. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 49:77-81
  11. Imokawa G, Mishima Y. 1980. Isolation and characterization of tyrosinase inhibitors and their differential action on melanogenic subcellular compartments in amelanotic and melanotic melanomas. Br J Dermatol 103:625-634
  12. Ishiyama M, Tominaga H, Shiga M, Sasamoto K, Ohkura Y, Ueno KA. 1996. Combined assay of cell vability and in vitro cytotoxicity with a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, neutral red and crystal violet. Biol Pharm Bull 19:1518-1520
  13. Kim MJ, Im KR, Yoon KS. 2015. Effect of medicinal herb prepared through traditional antidiabetic prescription on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activity and evaluation method for anti-melanogenesis agents using ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activity. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 44:993-999
  14. Kubo I, Kinst-Hori I, Yokokawa Y. 1994. Tyrosinase inhibitors from Anacardium occidentale fruits. J Nat Prod 57:545-551
  15. Laskin JD, Piccinini LA. 1986. Tyrosinase isozyme heterogeneity in differentiating B16/C3 melanoma. J Biologic Chem 261:16626-16635
  16. Lee C. 2001. The changes in the physicso-chemical properties of peanut milk by processing conditions. Korean J Food Nutr 14:199-203
  17. Lee TH, Seo JO, Baek SH, Kim SY. 2014. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on melanin synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in guinea pig skin. Biomol Ther (Seoul) 22:35-40
  18. Lee YR. 2019. Antioxidant activity of peanut flours with germination and roasting. Korean J Food Nutr 32:155-159
  19. Lim HJ, Kim MS, Kim DS, Kim HS, Pae SB, Kim JK, Shin EC. 2017. Comparison of lipid constituents and oxidative properties between normal and high-oleic peanuts grown in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Technol 49:235-241
  20. Limmongkon A, Janhom P, Amthong A, Kawpanuk M, Nopprang P, Poohadsuan J. Somboon T, Saijeen S, Surangkul D, Srikummool M, Boonsong T. 2017. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and resveratrol content in five cultivars of peanut sprouts. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7:332-338
  21. Nepote V, Grosso NR, Guzman CA. 2005. Optimization of extraction of phenolic antioxidants from peanut skins. J Sci Food Agric 85:33-38
  22. Noh H, Song KB. 2001. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor from Oenanthe javanica. Agric Chem Biotechnol 44:98-99
  23. Oldoni TL, Melo PS, Massarioli AP, Moreno IA, Bezerra RM, Rosalen PL, da Silva GV, Nascimento AM, Alencar SM. 2016. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques. Food Chem 192:306-312
  24. Ostlund RE Jr, Racette SB, Stenson WF. 2002. Effects of trace components of dietary fat on cholesterol metabolism: Phytosterols, oxysterols, and squalene. Nutr Rev 60:349-359
  25. Pae SB, Hwang CD, Kim SU, Lee MH, Shim KB, Park CH, Lee CK, Baek LY. Lee JK. 2016a. A new large grain and high-yielding Virginia type peanut cultivar 'Sinpalkwang'. Korean J Breed Sci 48:66-71
  26. Pae SB, Hwang CD, Lee MH, Kim SU, Oh KW, Lee BK, Park CH, Park KY, Baek IY, Jun YC. 2016b. A high oleate peanut variety 'K-Ol'. Korean J Breed Sci 48:313-318
  27. Pae SB, Kim SU, Lee MH, Hwang CD, Oh KW, Jung CS, Song DY, Baek IY, Lee Y. 2017b. A peanut variety 'Heuksaeng' with short stem and purple testa. Korean J Breed Sci 49:103-108
  28. Pae SB, Lee MH, Kim SU, Hwang CD, Oh KW, Jung CS, Lee YH. 2017a. A shinpung typed large grain and high-yielding peanut variety 'Daan'. Korean J Breed Sci 49:224-229
  29. Ricciarelli R, Zingg JM, Azzi A. 2001. Vitamin E: Protective role of a Janus molecule. FASEB J 15:2314-2325
  30. Sabate J, Oda K, Ros E. 2010. Nut consumption and blood lipid levels: A pooled analysis of 25 intervention trials. Arch Intern Med 170:821-827
  31. Saenglee S, Jogloy S, Patanothai A, Leid M, Senawong T. 2016. Cytotoxic effects of peanut phenolics possessing histone deacetylase inhibitory activity in breast and cervical cancer cell lines. Pharmacol Rep 68:1102-1110
  32. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D. 2006. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 54:9329-9339
  33. Shin ZI, Ahn CW, Nam HS, Lee HJ, Lee HJ, Moon TH. 1995. Fractionation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from soybean paste. Korean J Food Sci Technol 27:230-234
  34. Stirpe F, Della Corte E. 1969. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Conversion in vitro of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) to oxidase (type O). J Biol Chem 244:3855-3863
  35. Tamura T, Ozawa M, Kobayashi S, Watanabe H, Arai S, Mura K. 2015. Inhibitory effect of oligomeric polyphenols from peanut-skin on sugar digestion enzymes and glucose transport. Food Sci Technol Res 21:111-115
  36. Tibbot BK, Skadsen RW. 1996. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gibberellin-inducible, putative ${\alpha}$-glucosidase gene from barley. Plant Mol Biol 30:229-241
  37. Tsujita T, Shintani T, Sato H. 2013. ${\alpha}$-Amylase inhibitory activity from nut seed skin polyphenols. 1. Purification and characterization of almond seed skin polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 61:4570-4576
  38. Wang CY, Ng CC, Lin HT, Shyu YT. 2011. Free radical-scavenging and tyrosinase-inhibiting activities of extracts from sorghum distillery residue. J Biosci Bioeng 111:554-556
  39. Woodroof JG. 1973. Peanuts: Production, Processing, Products. 2nd ed. pp.12-38. AVI
  40. Woodroof JG. 1983. Peanuts: Production, Processing, Products. 3rd ed. pp.1-50. AVI
  41. Ye X, Krohn RL, Liu W, Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, McGinn TR, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. 1999. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem 196:99-108
  42. Yen WJ, Chang LW, Duh PD. 2005. Antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa and its antioxidative component, ethyl protocatechuate. LWT-Food Sci Technol 38:193-200
  43. Yu J, Ahmedna M, Goktepe I, Dai J. 2006. Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing. J Food Compost Anal 19:364-371
  44. Zhao Z, Wu M, Zhan Y, Zhan K, Chang X, Yang H, Li Z. 2017. Characterization and purification of anthocyanins from black peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) skin by combined column chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1519:74-82