Antihepatotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharide Obtained from Cultured Mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum

  • Lee, June-Woo (Dept. of Hotel Culinary Art and Bakery, Kyungbuk College)
  • Received : 2019.08.08
  • Accepted : 2019.09.16
  • Published : 2019.10.31


The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of the polysaccharide (GLP) obtained from the liquid cultured Ganoderma lucidum on the lipidperoxidation in a rat liver microsome and hepatotoxicity in the primary cultured rat hepatocytes. It is well known that the polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum exhibits hepatoprotective activity, antitumor activity etc., which many suggest a relationship to lipidperoxidation. The effect of GLP on $CCl_4-$ and galactosamineintoxicated cytotoxicity in the primary cultured rat hepatocytes were reduced the GPT value. In order to the estimate the effects of anti-lipidperoxidation of the polysaccharide, enzymatic and nonenzymatic reaction assays were performed, in vitro, in the rat liver microsome. An enzymatic lipidperoxidation reaction by $ADP+FeCl_3+NADPH$ and $CCl_4+NADPH$, GLP (1 mg/mL) inhibited 77.4% and 39.4%, respectively, and the nonenzymatic reaction displayed a 97.4% strongly inhibition. In the enzymatic and nonenzymatic inducers treated with GLP, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) progressively decreased by raising the GLP concentration. These results suggest that the anti-lipidperoxidation and radical scavenging activity of GLP may play an important part in the liver protection action.


Ganoderma lucidum;hepatoprotective activity;anti-lipidperoxidation;polysaccharide;microsomes


  1. Albano E, Lott KA, Slater TF, Stier A, Symons MCR, Tomasi A. 1982. Spin-trapping studies on the free-radical products formed by metabolic activation of carbon tetrachloride in rat liver microsomal fractions isolated hepatocytes and in vivo in the rat. Biochem J 204:593-603
  2. Chang SS, Zhou D, Meng GL, Wu F, Wang S, Chen X, Xu JL. 2012. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on oxidative stress of hyperlipidemic fatty liver in rats. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 37:3102-3106
  3. Comporti M. 1993. Lipid peroxidation: An overview. In Poli G, Albano E, Dianzanil MU (Eds.), Free Radicals: From Basic Science to Medicine. pp.65-79, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. Basel
  4. Ha YL, Kim YS, Ahn CR, Kweon JM, Park CW, Ha YK, Kim JO. 2010. Mycelial culture of Lentinus edodes alleviates rat liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride and ethanol. J Life Sci 20:133-141
  5. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. 1987. The deoxyribose method: A simple "test-tube" assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal Biochem 165:215-219
  6. Heo JH, Park JG, Cheon HJ, Kim YS, Kang SS, Hung TM, Bae KH, Lee SM. 2006. Hepatoprotective activities of gomisin A and gomisin N. Korean J Pharmacogn 37:294-301
  7. Hikino H, Ishiyama M, Suzuki Y, Konno C. 1989. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of Ganoderan B: A glycan of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med 55:423-428
  8. Huang J, Ou Y, Yew TWD, Liu J, Leng B, Lin Z, Su Y, Zhuang Y, Lin J, Li X, Xue Y, Pan Y. 2016. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against $CCl_4$-induced hepatic injury in mice. Int J Biol Macromol 82:678-686
  9. Itoh Y, Shimura H, Ito M, Watanabe N, Yamagishi M, Tamai M, Hanada K. 1991. A novel hepatoprotective ${\gamma}$-lactone, MH-031. I. Discovery, isolation, physico-chemical properties and structural elucidation. J Antibiot 44:832-837
  10. Jeong H, Kim YS, Park PJ, Choi UK, Jeong JH, Lee US, Choi WS. 2014. Development of functional mixed drink using extract of Hericium erinacium cultivated with Artemisia capillaris and black garlic. Korean J Food Nutr 27:751-759
  11. Kanmatsuse K, Kajiwara N, Hayashi K, Shimogaichi S, Fukinbara I, Ishikawa H, Tamura T. 1985. Studies on Ganoderma lucidum. I. Efficacy against hypertension and side effects. Yakugaku Zasshi 105:942-947
  12. Kiso Y, Tohkin M, Hikino H, Hattory M, Sakamoto T, Namba T. 1984. Mechanism of antihepatotoxic activity of glycyrrhizin I: Effect on free radical generation and lipidperoxidation. Planta Med 50:298-302
  13. Kleiner D, Hegyi G, Urbanics R, Dezsi L, Robotka H, Feher E, Sardi E, Szebeni J, Blazovics A. 2016. Hepatoprotective liposomal glycyrrhizin in alcoholic liver injury. Eur J Integr Med 8:23-28
  14. Kohda H, Tokmumoto W, Sakamoto K, Fujii M, Hirai Y, Yamasaki K, Komoda Y, Nakamura H, Ishihara S, Uchida M. 1985. The biologically active constituents of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Histamine release inhibitory triterpenes. Chem Pharm Bull 33:1367-1374
  15. Lee JW, Han MD, Lee KH. 1992. Screening of hepatoprotective substances from higher fungi by primary cultured rat hepatocytes intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Korean J Mycol 20:347-353
  16. Liu GT, Wang GF, Wei HL, Bao TT, Song ZY. 1979. A comparison of the protective actions of biphenyl dimethyl-dicarboxylate, trans-stilbene, alcoholic extracts of Fructus schizandrae and Ganoderma against experimental liver injury in mice. Yao Xue Xue Bao 14:598-604
  17. Oh S, Lee MS. 2005. Antioxidative and antimutagenic effects of Ganoderma lucidum Krast extract. Korean J Food Nutr 18:54-62
  18. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351-358
  19. Park YM, Yoon SK, Park SH, Baeg NJ, Kim BS. 1993. Efficacy and safety of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (Licovek) in the treatment of chronic type B hepatitis. Korean J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1:45-54
  20. Recknagel RO. 1973. Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Pharmacol Rev 19:145-208
  21. Seglen PO. 1973. Preparation of rat liver cells. III. Enzymatic requirements for tissue dispersion. Exp Cell Res 82:391-398
  22. Shimizu A, Yano T, Saito Y, Inada Y. 1985. Isolation of an inhibitor of platelet aggregation from a fungus, Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull 33:3012-3015
  23. Slater TF, Sawyer BC. 1971. The stimulatory effects of carbon tetrachloride and other halogenoalkanes on peroxidative reaction in rat liver fraction in vitro. J Biochem 123:805-814
  24. Smith PK, Krohn RI, Hermanson GT, Mallia AK Gartner FH, Provenzano MD, Fujimoto EK, Goeke NM, Olson BJ, Klenk DC. 1985. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. Anal Biochem 150:76-85
  25. Sone Y, Okuda R, Wada N, Kishida E, Misaki A. 1985. Structure and antitumor activities of the polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body and the growing culture of mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum. Agric Biol Chem 49:2641-2643
  26. Sreenivasan S, Sugumaran A, Lachimanan YL, Ratnasamy V, Dharmaraj S, Santhanam A. 2010. In vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Lentinula edodes against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Molecules 15:4478-4489
  27. Toth JO, Luu B, J Ourisson G. 1983. Les acides ganoderiques taz: Triterpens cytoxiques de Ganoderma lucidum. Tetrahedron Lett 24:1081-1084
  28. Williams DL, DiLuzio NR. 1980. Glucan-induced modification of murine viral hepatitis. Science 208:67-69
  29. Zhang XH, Hu HB, Tang YL, Huang RS, Luo JF, Hur BK. 2002. The hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharides isolated from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum. J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:367-370