An Integrative Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Programs for Elementary School Students in South Korea

한국의 초등학생을 대상으로 한 성폭력 예방 교육 프로그램에 관한 통합적 고찰

  • Shin, Hyewon (School of Nursing, Clemson University) ;
  • Lee, Jung Min (Graduate School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Greensboro) ;
  • Kang, Kyung-Ah (College of Nursing, Sahmyook University) ;
  • Kim, Shin-Jeong (School of Nursing, Research Institute of Nursing Science, Hallym University)
  • 신혜원 (클렘슨 간호대학교) ;
  • 이정민 (노스캐롤라이나 간호대학교) ;
  • 강경아 (삼육대학교 간호대학) ;
  • 김신정 (한림대학교 간호대학.간호학연구소)
  • Received : 2019.03.14
  • Accepted : 2019.04.18
  • Published : 2019.10.31


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review sexual abuse prevention education program for Korean elementary school students. Methods: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review methods were used and Gough's weight of evidence was employed as a quality appraisal tool. Articles published in Korean or English were identified through electronic search engines and scholarly web sites using three keywords: "elementary school student", "sexual abuse", and "prevention education". Peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2018 were included in this review. Results: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and were appraised as being high-quality. Among the 12 selected studies, seven were descriptive, while five were intervention studies. Sexual abuse prevention education programs were effective in improving perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors among elementary school students. However, deficiencies were found in the variety of educational methods, utilization of experts, and standardization of the content of sexual abuse prevention education. Conclusion: We need to provide various educational methods that are appropriate for specific developmental stages, and the sexual abuse prevention content should draw upon the current sexual education program administered to this population. Furthermore, parents and trained teachers or school health teachers should be included to provide effective education programs for elementary students.


Supported by : 한림대학교


  1. Moon KJ, Park KM, Sung Y. Sexual abuse prevention mobile application (SAP_MobAPP) for primary school children in Korea. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 2017;26(5):573-589.
  2. Kim SJ, Kang KA. Effects of the child sexual abuse prevention education (C-SAPE) program on South Korean fifth-grade students' competence in terms of knowledge and self-protective behaviors. The Journal of School Nursing. 2017;33(2):123-132.
  3. Kim SJ, Kang SR, Lee JM. Development of a sexual abuse prevention education program for elementary school students using a hybrid application. Child Health Nursing Research. 2018;24(1):109-118.
  4. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. 2010-2017 Analysis of sex crime trends for children and adolescents [Internet]. Seoul: Ministry of Gender Equality and Family; 2018 [cited 2019 September 11]. Available from:;jsessionid=X797srOp40qWgjnO16nzqRZ+.mogef10?mid=plc504&bbtSn=104.
  5. Kim SJ, Park SJ, Kim SH, Kang KA. Contents analysis of sexual abuse recognized by elementary school students. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education. 2013;19(4):518-530.
  6. Lee YH, Han YK, Kim NY. The analysis of awareness of students and teachers on the school violence prevention policy: Focusing on sexual violence policy. The Journal of Politics of Education. 2018;25(1):31-50.
  7. Lee SH, Park WJ. Development of standard education contents and methods for the prevention of sexual violence in late school-age children using Delphi technique. Korean Journal of Scientific Criminal Investigation. 2013;7(4):287-296.
  8. Cho YR, Kim JE, Park KM. Differences in the characteristics of sexual abuse victimization between low- and high-grade elementary school children and correlations among the characteristics. Journal of Korean Community Health Nursing. 2015;26(2):119-127.
  9. Kim HS, Kang KA, Kim SJ, Kim HW, Moon SY, Park SN, et al. Child Adolescent Health Nursing I. 1st ed. Seoul: Koonja Publishing Inc.; 2017. p. 318-323.
  10. Lee HH, Ha JY. Practice and perception of child sexual abuse prevention education through the myths of mothers and teachers. Journal of Child Welfare and Development. 2013;11(2):41-66.
  11. Ha JY, Lee HH. Fear of child sexual violence, prevention behavior, and upper elementary school victims' experiences of child sexual violence. Journal of Child Welfare and Development. 2014;12(2):43-65.
  12. Fryda CM, Hulme PA. School-based childhood sexual abuse prevention programs: An integrative review. The Journal of School Nursing. 2015;31(3):167-182.
  13. Kim SJ, Kang KA, Cho H, Min HY. Comparison of needs about sexual abuse prevention education between elementary school students and teachers. Child Health Nursing Research. 2016;22(3):215-226.
  14. Casper R. Characteristics of children who experience positive or negative reactions to a sexual abuse prevention program. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. 1999;7(4):97-112.
  15. Gwangju Metropolitan Office of Education. Sexual violence prevention and promotion of sexual education plan [Internet]. Gwangju: Gwangju Metropolitan Office of Education; 2008 [cited 2019 September 24]. Available from:
  16. Whittemore R, Knafl K. The integrative review: Updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2005;52(5):546-553.
  17. Gough D. Weight of evidence: A framework for the appraisal of the quality and relevance of evidence. Research Papers in Education. 2007;22(2):213-228.
  18. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2009;62(10):1006-1012.
  19. Hassler B, Major L, Hennessy S. Tablet use in schools: A critical review of the evidence for learning outcomes. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2015;32(2):139-156.
  20. Yoon JH. A study on children's experiences and recognitions of preventive education against sexual abuse. Journal of Korean Practical Arts Education. 2010;23(3):59-78.
  21. World Health Organization. Child sexual abuse: A silent health emergency [Internet]. Africa: World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa; 2004 [cited 2019 September 11]. Available from:
  22. Letourneau EJ, Nietert PJ, Rheingold AA. Initial assessment of stewards of children program effects on child sexual abuse reporting rates in selected South Carolina counties. Child Maltreatment. 2016;21(1):74-79.
  23. Rudolph J, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ, Shanley DC, Hawkins R. Child sexual abuse prevention opportunities: Parenting, programs, and the reduction of risk. Child Maltreatment. 2018;23(1):96-106.
  24. Yoon JH. Elementary school teachers' needs assessments and perceptions on school education program to prevent sexual abuse to children. Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association. 2008;20(3):231-258.
  25. Zwi K, Woolfenden S, Wheeler DM, O'Brien T, Tait P, Williams KJ. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;18(3):CD004380.
  26. Guse K, Levine D, Martins S, Lira A, Gaarde J, Westmorland W, et al. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: A systematic review. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012;51(6):535-543.
  27. Darcy AM, Lock J. Using technology to improve treatment outcomes for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2017;26(1):33-42.