Effects of Adding Glutinous Barley Flour on Quality Characteristics of Yakgwa

흰찰쌀보릿가루의 첨가가 약과의 품질특성에 미치는 영향

  • Ra, Ha-Na (Department of AgroFood Resources, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, In-Seon (Major in Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University)
  • 라하나 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부) ;
  • 이인선 (군산대학교 식품영양학전공)
  • Received : 2019.10.23
  • Accepted : 2019.10.29
  • Published : 2019.10.31


This study was undertaken to examine the quality characteristics of glutinous barley flour (GBF) Yakgwa produced by air frying. To achieve this, the pH of the dough as well as expansion ratio, color, texture, and sensory evaluation of Yakgwa were measured. The pH of the Yakgwa dough significantly decreases with increasing amount of GBF, over the range 5.35-5.45. Lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) also decrease with increasing amount of GBF. Furthermore, significant decrease was observed in the hardness, proportionate to the ratio of GBF added (p<0.001). Generic descriptive sensory evaluation results reveal that samples with high ratio of GBF show increased grain aroma, burnt aroma, grain flavor, nutty flavor, astringency, chalky taste, and hardness. The acceptance test determined the GBF-20 sample group to be high in flavor and texture (p<0.05). Therefore, it would be appropriate to apply to 20% GBF for alternative and the addition of GBF would be considered to have positive effects on the quality characteristics of Yakgwa using air fryer.


Yakgwa;air fryer;glutinous barley four;quality characteristics


Supported by : Kunsan National University


  1. Hwang HJ, Kwak EJ. 2017. Quality characteristics and oxidative stability of rice Yackwa added with yam powder. J. East Asian Soc. Diet Life, 27(3):304-312
  2. Jang SY, Park MJ, Lee SY. 2013. Quality characteristics of baked Yackwa with different types and amounts of oils. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 28(5):525-532
  3. Jeon JE, Lee IS. 2018. Quality characteristics and acceptability of Hotteok with barley flour for development of representative foods of traditional market. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 34(3):279-286
  4. Jeong YZ, Jin SY, Han YS. 2014. Functional and quality characteristics of glutinous barley Jeung-pyun added with beet (Beta Vulgaris L.) powder. Korean J. Food & Nutr., 27(1):1-9
  5. Joung WY, Kim SJ, Kim BG, Huhr BS, Baek HH. 2018. Effect of roasting degree of barley on aroma characteristics of boricha. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 50(2):123-131
  6. Jung HC, Ji JL. 2013. Quality characteristics and dough rheological properties of pan bread with waxy barley powder. Korean J. Culinary Res., 19(4):119-135
  7. Jung JJ. 2016. Quality characteristics of cake added with waxy barley. Master's degree thesis, Kyunghee University, Korea. pp 51-52
  8. Kim BY. 2014. Quality characteristics of grape seed oil cookies by mixed ratio of barley powder and oat powder. Master's degree thesis, Pukyong National University, Korea, pp 22-23
  9. Kim EH, Lee YJ, Jang GY, Kim MY, Yoon NR, Ji YM, Lee MJ, Lee JS, Jeong HS. 2016. Functional components of different varieties of barley powder with varying degrees of milling. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 48(3):256-261
  10. Kim HY, Kim MR, Koh BK. 2014. Food quality evaluation. Hyoil Publishers, Seoul, Korea. pp 178-184, 196-197
  11. Lee IS. 2017. Effect of adding barley flour on quality characteristics of vegetable pancake. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 33(3):333-341
  12. Lee MJ, Kim KS, Kim YK, Choi JS, Park KG, Kim HS. 2013. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of noodle containing whole flour of Korean hull-less barley cultivars. Korean J. Crop Sci., 58(4):459-467
  13. Lee SK, Woo KS, Lee HL, Lee JH, Lee BW, Lee YY, Lee BG, Kim SL, Kim HJ. 2017. Evaluation of antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of barley by cultivars and milling recovery. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 46(2):1556-1560
  14. Lee SY, Jang SY, Lee MK. 2007. Quality characteristics of non-fired Yackwa according to the methods of baked-in-oven and peanut addition. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 22(4):434-440
  15. Lee YJ, Lim SY, Kim WS, Kim YT. 2016. Processing and quality characteristics of glutinous barley gruel containing Hizikia fusiformis. Korean J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 49(3):310-316
  16. Noh BS, Kim SS, Jang PS, Lee HK, Park WJ, Song KB, Lee HS, Lee SB, Hwang KT, Min SC, Sim JH. 2016. Food processing & preservation. Soohaksa, Seoul, Korea, pp 63-68
  17. Oh JY, Sim KH. 2017. Quality characteristics of Yakgwa added with ethanol extract from black lentil (Lens culinaris). J. East Asian Soc. Diet Life, 27(2):114-123
  18. Park HY, Kim BW, Jang MS. 2008. The effects of added barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sprout powder on the quality and preservation of Sulgidduk. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 24(4):487-493
  19. Park JS, Lee HA, Lee KA. 2017. Effects of glutinous rice flour substitution levels on physicochemical and sensory properties of Yakgwa. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 33(3):285-291
  20. Park JS, Shin MS, Choe EO, Lee KA. 2016. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of Yackwa with glutinous rice flour. J. East Asian Soc. Diet Life, 26(3):271-277
  21. Sim KH. 2015. Quality characteristics during storage of Yackwa added with ethanol extract from Ulmus davidiana. Korean J. Food Nutr., 28(3):446-457
  22. Teruel MR, Gordon M, Linares MB, Garrido MD, Ahromrit A, Niranjan K. 2015. A comparative study of the characteristics of french fries produced by deep fat frying and air frying. J. Food Sci., 80(2):E349-E358
  23. Tian J, Chen S, Shi J, Chen J, Liu D, Cai Y, Ogawa Y, Ye X. 2017. Microstructure and digestibility of potato strips produced by conventional frying and air-frying: An in vitro study. Food Structure, 14:30-35