Two Newly Recorded Spionid Species (Polychaeta: Spionidae) in Korean Fauna, with New Record of the Genus Malacoceros

  • Lee, Geon Hyeok (Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University) ;
  • Choi, Hyun Ki (National Institute of Biological Resources) ;
  • Yoon, Seong Myeong (Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University)
  • Received : 2019.06.19
  • Accepted : 2019.10.11
  • Published : 2019.10.31


Two new records of spionid polychaetes, Malacoceros reductus Blake & Kudenov, 1978 and Pseudopolydora cf. kempi (Southern, 1921), collected from Korean waters are reported here with detailed descriptions and illustrations. Malacoceros reductus, only reported in New South Wales, Australia, is distinguishable from its relatives by a prostomium with lateral horns, reduction of chaetiger 1, and the presence of the tridentate hooded hooks. Pseudopolydora cf. kempi, which has been known to have a wide geographical distribution, is characterized by a prostomium incised anteriorly, the presence of the occipital antenna, and two rows of black spots on the dorsal side. In this paper, photographs of scanning electron microscopy for characteristic features of each species are presented.


Supported by : National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR)


  1. Abe H, Kondoh T, Sato-Okoshi W, 2016. First report of the morphology and rDNA sequences of two 672 Pseudopolydora species (Annelida: Spionidae) from Japan. Zoological Science, 33:650-658.
  2. Banse K, 1972. On some species of Phyllodocidae, Syllidae, Nephtyidae, Goniadidae, Apistobranchidae, and Spionidae (Polychaeta) from the northeast Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science, 26:191-222.
  3. Blake JA, 1996. Family Spionidae Grube, 1850, including a review of the genera and species from California and a revision of the genus Polydora Bosc, 1802. In: Taxonomic atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara, Part 3 (Eds., Blake JA, Hilbig B, Scott PV). Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 81-223.
  4. Blake JA, Kudenov JD, 1978. The Spionidae (Polychaeta) from Southeastern Australia and adjacent areas with a revision of the genera. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, 39:171-280.
  5. Blake JA, Woodwick KH, 1975. Reproduction and larval development of Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata (Okuda) and Pseudopolydora kempi (Southern) (Polychaeta: Spionidae). The Biological Bulletin, 149:109-127.
  6. Day JH, 1967. A monograph on the Polychaeta of southern Africa. British Museum of Natural History, Publication, 656:1-878.
  7. Delgado-Blas VH, 2008. Polydora and related genera (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean region. Journal of Natural History, 42:1-19.
  8. Delgado-Blas VH, Diaz-Diaz O, 2010. Description of two new species of Malacoceros and Rhynchospio spionids (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 83:249-257.
  9. Delgado-Blas VH, Diaz-Diaz O, 2013. Malacoceros longiseta, a new species of Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Venezuela. Marine Biodiversity, 43:181-187.
  10. Fauchald K, 1977. The Polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Nature History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Service, Los Angeles, CA, pp. 21-26.
  11. Hiebert TC, Butler BA, Shanks AL, 2015. Oregon estuarine invertebrates, Rudys' illustrated guide to common species. 3rd ed. University of Oregon, Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Charleston, OR, pp. 1-861.
  12. Imajima M, 1991. Spionidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Japan VI. The genera Malacoceros and Rhynchospio. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series A (Zoology), 17:5-17.
  13. Light WJ, 1978. Spionidae (Polychaeta, Annelida). The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA, pp. 1-211.
  14. Liu JY, 2008. Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press, Beijing, pp. 1-1267.
  15. Meissner K, Bick A, Guggolz T, Gotting M, 2014. Spionidae (Polychaeta: Canalipalpata: Spionida) from seamounts in the NE Atlantic. Zootaxa, 3786:201-245.
  16. Meissner K, Gotting M, 2015. Spionidae (Annelida: 'Polychaeta': Canalipalpata) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio and Spiophanes. Zootaxa, 4019:378-413.
  17. Paik EI, 1982. Taxonomic studies on polychaetous annelids in Korea. Research Bulletin of the Hyosung Women's University, 24:745-913.
  18. Paik EI, 1989. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea. Vol. 31. Ministry of Education Press, Seoul, pp. 452-468.
  19. Radashevsky VI, 2015. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora. Zootaxa, 4019:635-694.
  20. Radashevsky VI, Hsieh HL, 2000. Pseudopolydora (Polychaeta: Spionidae) species from Taiwan. Zoological Studies, 39:218-235.
  21. Radashevsky VI, Migotto AE, 2009. Morphology and biology of a new Pseudopolydora (Annelida: Spionidae) species from Brazil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89:461-468.
  22. Read G, Fauchald K, 2019. World Polychaeta database. Malacoceros Quatrefages, 1843 [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species, Accessed 14 Oct 2019, <>.
  23. Sato-Okoshi W, 2000. Polydorid species (Polychaeta: Spionidae) in Japan, with descriptions of morphology, ecology and burrow structure. 2. Non-boring species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80:443-456.
  24. Southern R, 1921. Polychaeta of the Chilka Lake and also of fresh and brackish waters in other parts of India. Memoirs of the Indian Museum, 5:563-659.
  25. Walker LM, 2011. A review of the current status of the Polydora-complex (Polychaeta: Spionidae) in Australia and a checklist of recorded species. Zootaxa, 2751:40-62.
  26. Williams JD, 2007. New records and description of four new species of spionids (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Philippines: the genera Dispio, Malacoceros, Polydora and Scolelepis, with notes on the palp ciliation patterns of the genus Scolelepis. Zootaxa, 1459:1-35.
  27. Zhou J, Ji WW, Li XZ, 2010. Records of Polydora complex spionids (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from China's coastal waters, with emphasis on parasitic species and the description of a new species. Marine Fisheries, 32:1-15.