Thermal effects on the mechanical properties of cement mortars reinforced with aramid, glass, basalt and polypropylene fibers

  • Mazloom, Moosa (Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University) ;
  • Mirzamohammadi, Sajjad (Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University)
  • Received : 2019.05.27
  • Accepted : 2019.10.01
  • Published : 2019.06.25


In this study, thermal effects on the mechanical properties of cement mortars with some types of fibers is investigated. The replaced fibers were made of polypropylene (PP), aramid, glass and basalt. In other words, the main goal of this paper is to study the effects of different fibers on the mechanical properties of cement mortars after subjecting to normal and sub-elevated temperatures. The experimental tests used for investigating these effects were compressive, splitting tensile, and four-point bending tests at 20, 100 and $300^{\circ}C$, respectively. Moreover, the microstructures of the specimens in different temperatures were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the experimental results, the negative effects of sub-elevated temperatures on four-point bending tests were much more than the others. Moreover, using the fibers with higher melting points could not improve the qualities of the samples in sub-elevated temperatures.


cement mortars;Polypropylene (PP);aramid;glass;basalt;mechanical properties;thermal properties;sub-elevated temperatures


Supported by : Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University


  1. Afzali Naniz, O. and Mazloom, M. (2018), "Effects of colloidal nano-silica on fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete", J. Build. Eng., 20, 400-410.
  2. Afzali Naniz, O. and Mazloom, M. (2019), "Assessment of the influence of micro- and nano-silica on the behavior of self-compacting lightweight concrete using full factorial design", Asian J. Civil Eng., 20, 57-70.
  3. ASTM C1609/M-05 (2006), Standard Test Method for Flexural Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (using Beam with Third-point loading), West Conshohocke, PA, USA.
  4. Bhat, P.S., Chang, V. and Li, M. (2014), "Effect of elevated temperature on strain-hardening engineered cementitious composites", Constr. Build. Mater., 69, 370-380.
  5. BS 1881: part 108. (1983a), Method for making test cubes from fresh concrete.
  6. BS 1881: part 111. (1983b), Method of testing concrete.
  7. BS 1881: part 117. (1983c), Method for determination of tensile splitting strength.
  8. Dias, W.P.S., Khoury, G.A. and Sullivan, P.J.E. (1990), "Mechanical properties of hardened cement paste exposed to temperatures up to $700^{\circ}C$ ($1292^{\circ}F$)", ACI Mater, 87, 160-166.
  9. Du, Q., Wei, J. and Lv, J. (2017), "Effects of High Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol Engineered Cementitious Composites", Int. J. Civ. Eng., 16(8), 965-972.
  10. Karamloo, M., Mazloom, M. and Payganeh, G. (2017), "Effect of size on nominal strength of selfcompacting lightweight concrete and self-compacting normal weight concrete: A stress-based approach", Mater. Today Commun., 13, 36-45.
  11. Kelestemur, O., Arici, E., Yildiz, S. and Gokcer, B. (2014), "Performance evaluation of cement mortars containing marble dust and glass fiber exposed to high temperature by using Taguchi method", Constr. Build. Mater., 60, 17-24.
  12. Khoury, G.A. (2015), "Compressive strength of concrete at high temperatures: a reassessment", Mag. Concrete Res., 161, 291-309.
  13. Li, V.C. (1998), "Engineered Cementitious Composites - Tailored Composites Through Micromechanical Modeling Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Present and the Future edited by N. Banthia, in Fiber Reinforced Concrete", (Present and the Future edited by N. Banthia, A. Bentur, A. and A. Mufti), Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Montreal, Canada, pp. 64-97.
  14. Li, V.C. (2000), "Strategies for high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites development", Proceedings of International Workshop on Advances in Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Bergamo, Italy, pp. 93-98.
  15. Li, V.C. (2003), "On engineered cementitious composites (ECC): A review of the material and its applications", Adv. Concrete Tech., 1(3), 215-230.
  16. Li, V.C. (2007), "Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) - Material, Structural, and Durability Performance".
  17. Li, V.C. (2008), "Durability of mechanically loaded engineered cementitious composites under highly alkaline environments", 30, 72-81.
  18. Li, V.C. (2012), "Tailoring ECC for Special Attributes", Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater, 6, 135-144.
  19. Li, V.C. (2017), "From Micromechanics to Structural Engineering - The Design of Cementitious Composites for Civil Engineering Applications".
  20. Li, V.C., Wu, H.C., Maalej, M.D. and Mishra, D. (1996), "Tensile behavior of cement-based composite with random discontinuous steel fibers", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79, 74-78.
  21. Li, V.C., Wu, C., Wang, S. and Ogawa, A. (2002), "Interface tailoring for strain-hardening polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composites (PVA-ECC)", ACI Mater., 99(5), 463-472.
  22. Maalej, M., Quek, S.T. and Zhang, J. (2005), "Behavior of hybrid-fiber engineered cementitious composites subjected to dynamic tensile loading and projectile impact", 17, 143-152.
  23. Mazloom, M. (2008), "Estimating long-term creep and shrinkage of high-strength concrete", Cem. Concrete Compos., 30(4), 316-326.
  24. Mazloom, M. and Mahboubi, F. (2017), "Evaluating the settlement of lightweight coarse aggregate in self-compacting lightweight concrete", Comput. Concrete, Int. J., 19(2), 203-210.
  25. Mazloom, M. and Miri, M.S. (2017), "Interaction of magnetic water, silica fume and superplasticizer on fresh and hardened properties of concrete", Adv. Concrete Constr., Int. J., 5(2), 87-99.
  26. Mazloom, M. and Ranjbar, A. (2010), "Relation between the workability and strength of self-compacting concrete", Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures, Singapore, pp. 315-322.
  27. Mazloom, M. and Yoosefi, M.M. (2013), "Predicting the indirect tensile strength of self-compacting concrete using artificial neural networks", Comput. Concrete, Int. J., 12(3), 285-301.
  28. Mazloom, M., Ramezanianpour, A.A. and Brooks, J.J. (2004), "Effect of silica fume on mechanical properties of high-strength concrete", Cem. Concrete Compos., 26(1), 347-357.
  29. Mazloom, M., Saffari, A. and Mehrvand, M. (2015), "Compressive, shear and torsional strength of beams made of self-compacting concrete", Comput. Concrete, Int. J., 15(6), 935-950.
  30. Mazloom, M., Allahabadi, A. and Karamloo, M. (2017), "Effect of silica fume and polyepoxide-based polymer on electrical resistivity", Adv. Concrete Constr., Int. J., 5(6), 587-611.
  31. Mazloom, M., Homayooni, S.M. and Miri, S.M. (2018a), "Effect of rock flour type on rheology and strength of self-compacting lightweight concrete", Comput. Concrete, Int. J., 21(2), 199-207.
  32. Mazloom, M., Soltani, A., Karamloo, M., Hasanloo, A. and Ranjbar, A. (2018b), "Effects of silica fume, superplasticizer dosage and type of superplasticizer on the properties of normal and self-compacting concrete", Adv. Mater. Res., Int. J., 7(1), 407-434.
  33. Mechtcherine, V., Andrade, F.De., Muller, S.P., Jun, P., Dias, R. and Filho, T. (2012), "Cement and Concrete Research Coupled strain rate and temperature effects on the tensile behavior of strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC) with PVA fibers", Cem. Concrete Res, 42, 1417-1427.
  34. Meng, D., Huang, T., Zhang, Y.X. and Lee, C.K. (2017), "Mechanical behavior of a polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) using local ingredients", Constr. Build. Mater., 141, 259-270.
  35. Morsy, M.S., Abbas, H. and Alsayed, S.H. (2012), "Behavior of blended cement mortars containing nano-metakaolin at elevated temperatures", Constr. Build. Mater., 35, 900-905.
  36. Othuman, A. and Wang, Y.C. (2011), "Elevated-temperature thermal properties of lightweight foamed concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 25, 705-716.
  37. Qian, S. and Li, V.C. (2007), "Simplified Inverse Method for Determining the Tensile Strain Capacity of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites", Adv. Concrete Tech., 5, 235-246.
  38. Sahmaran, M. and Li, V.C. (2007), "De-icing salt scaling resistance of mechanically loaded engineered cementitious composites", Cement Concrete Res., 37, 1035-1046.
  39. Sahmaran, M., Lachemi, M. and Li, V.C. (2010), "Assessing mechanical properties and microstructure of fire-damaged engineered cementitious composites", ACI Mater., 107(3), 297-304.
  40. Sahmaran, M., Li, M. and Li, V.C. (2011a), "Transport properties of engineered cementitious composites under chloride exposure", ACI Mater J., 104(6), p. 604.
  41. Sahmaran, M., Ozbay, E., Yucel, H.E., Lachemi, M. and Li, V.C. (2011b), "Effect of fly ash and PVA fiber on microstructural damage and residual properties of engineered cementitious composites exposed to high temperatures", J. Mater. Civil Eng., 23, 1735-1745.
  42. Salehi, H. and Mazloom, M. (2018), "Effect of magnetic-field intensity on fracture behaviors of self-compacting lightweight concrete", Mag. Concr. Res., 71(13), 665-679.
  43. Salehi, H. and Mazloom, M. (2019a), "Opposite effects of ground granulated blast-furnace slag and silica fume on the fracture behavior of self-compacting lightweight concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 222, 622-632.
  44. Salehi, H. and Mazloom, M. (2019b), "An experimental investigation on fracture parameters and brittleness of self-compacting lightweight concrete containing magnetic field treated water", Arch. Civil Mech. Eng., 19, 803-819.
  45. Sirijaroonchai, K., El-tawil, S. and Parra-montesinos, G. (2010), "Behavior of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites under multi-axial compressive loading", Cem. Concrete Compos., 32, 62-72.
  46. Suthiwarapirak, P., Matsumoto, T. and Kanda, T. (2004), "Multiple cracking and fiber bridging characteristics of engineered cementitious composites under fatigue flexure", J. Mater. Civil Eng., 16, 433-443.
  47. Yang, E. and Li, V.C. (2010), "Strain-hardening fiber cement optimization and component tailoring by means of a micromechanical model". Constr. Build. Mater., 24, 130-139.
  48. Yang, E., Wang, S., Yang, Y. and Li, V.C. (2008), "Fiber-bridging constitutive law of engineered cementitious composites", Adv. Concrete Tech., 6, 181-193.
  49. Yang, E.H., Sahmaran, M., Yang, Y. and Li, V.C. (2009), "Rheo- logical control in production of engineered cementitious composites", ACI Mater., 106(4), 357-366.
  50. Yu, J., Weng, W. and Yu, K. (2014), "Effect of different cooling regimes on the mechanical properties of cementitious composites subjected to high temperatures", Sci. World J.
  51. Yu, J., Lin, J., Zhang, Z. and Li, V.C. (2015), "Mechanical performance of ECC with high-volume fly ash after sub-elevated temperatures", Constr. Build. Mater., 99, 82-89.
  52. Yu, K.Q., Yu, J.T., Dai, J.G., Lu, Z.D. and Shah, S.P. (2018), "Development of ultra-high performance engineered cementitious composites using polyethylene (PE) fibers", Constr. Build. Mater., 158, 217-227.
  53. Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Ju, X. and Shi, Z. (2014), "Simulation of flexural performance of layered ECC-concrete composite beam with fracture mechanics model", Eng. Fract. Mech., 131, 419-438.