DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Crack growth rate evaluation of alloys 690/152 by numerical simulation of extracted CT specimens

  • Lee, S.H. (R&D Institute of Radioactive Wastes, Korean Radioactive Waste Agency) ;
  • Kim, S.W. (Nuclear Material Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Cho, C.H. (R&D Institute of Radioactive Wastes, Korean Radioactive Waste Agency) ;
  • Chang, Y.S. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University)
  • Received : 2019.02.13
  • Accepted : 2019.05.12
  • Published : 2019.10.25

Abstract

While nickel-based alloys have been widely used for power plants due to corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties, during the last couple of decades, failures of nuclear components increased gradually. One of main degradation mechanisms was primary water stress corrosion cracking at dissimilar metal welds of piping and reactor head penetrations. In this context, precise estimation of welding effects became an important issue for ensuring reliability of them. The present study deals with a series of finite element analyses and crack growth rate evaluation of Alloys 690/152. Firstly, variation of residual stresses and equivalent plastic strains was simulated taking into account welding of a cylindrical block. Subsequently, extraction and pre-cracking of compact tension (CT) specimens were considered from different locations of the block. Finally, crack growth curves of the alloys and heat affected zone were developed based on analyses results combined with experimental data in references. Characteristics of crack growth behaviors were also discussed in relation to mechanical and fracture parameters.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation (NRF), Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

References

  1. J.I. Bennetch, G.E. Modzelewski, L.L. Spain, G.V. Rao, Root cause evaluation and repair of Alloy 82/182 j-groove weld cracking of reactor vessel head penetrations at North Anna unit 2, in: Trans. of ASME PVP Conf 437, 2002, pp. 179-186.
  2. S.S. Kang, S.S. Hwang, H.P. Kim, Y.S. Lim, J.S. Kim, The experience and analysis of vent pipe PWSCC in PWR vessel head penetration, Nucl. Eng. Des. 269 (2014) 291-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2013.08.043
  3. KAERI, Survey on Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 690, AR-891, 2011.
  4. USNRC, Regulatory Approach for PWSCC of Dissimilar Metal Butt Welds in Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Coolant System Piping, DC 20555-0001, 2008.
  5. K.S. Kang, H.J. Lee, B.S. Lee, I.C. Jung, K.S. Park, Residual stress analysis of an overlay weld and a repair weld on the dissimilar butt weld, Nucl. Eng. Des. 239 (2009) 2771-2777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.08.022
  6. R.A. Page, Stress corrosion cracking of Alloys 600 and 690 and Nos. 82 and 182 weld metals in high-temperature water, Corrosion 39 (1983) 409-421. https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3593883
  7. R.A. Page, Stress corrosion of Alloy 182 weld metal in high-temperature water the effect of a carbon steel couple, Corrosion 41 (1985) 338-344. https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3582015
  8. G.E. Fuchs, S.Z. Hayden, The microstructure and tensile properties of nitrogen containing vacuum atomized Alloy 690, Scripta, Metall 25 (1991) 1483-1488. https://doi.org/10.1016/0956-716X(91)90437-6
  9. Z. Barsoum, Residual stress analysis and fatigue of multi-pass welded tubular stuctures, Eng. Fail. Anal. 15 (2008) 863-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2007.11.016
  10. Z. Barsoum, I. Barsoum, Residual stress effects on fatigue life of welded structures using LEFM, Eng. Fail. Anal. 16 (2009) 449-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2008.06.017
  11. P. Dong, Welding residual stresses and effects on fracture in pressure vessel and piping components: a millennium review and beyond, J. Press. Vessel Technol. 122 (2000) 329-338. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.556189
  12. P. Dong, Residual stress analyses of a multi-pass girth weld: 3-D special shell versus axisymmetric models, J. Press. Vessel Technol. 123 (2002) 207-213.
  13. D. Deng, S. Kiyoshima, K. Ogawa, N. Yanagida, K. Saito, Predicting welding residual stresses in a dissimilar metal girth welded pipe using 3D finite element model with a simplified heat source, Nucl. Eng. Des. 241 (2011) 46-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2010.11.010
  14. S.H. Lee, Y.S. Chang, S.W. Kim, Residual stress assessment of nickel-based Alloy 690 welding parts, Eng. Fail. Anal. 54 (2015) 57-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2015.03.022
  15. S. Xu, Y. Wei, D. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Wang, Numerical investigation of thermo-mechanical stress in U-tube including forming effect for the SCC failure analysis, Eng. Fail. Anal. 77 (2017) 126-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.02.010
  16. USNRC, Crack Growth Rates and Metallographic Examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from Field Components and Laboratory Materials Tested in PWR Environments, CR-6964, 2008.
  17. L.F. Fredette, H.J. Rathbun, NRC/EPRI welding residual stress and validation program-phase II details and finding, in: Proc. ASME PVP Conf, 2011, pp. PVP2011-57642.
  18. M. Kerr, H.J. Rathbun, Summary of finite element sensitivity studies conducted in support of the NRC/EPRI welding residual stress program, in: Proc. ASME PVP Conf, 2012, pp. PVP2012-78883.
  19. B. Alexandreanu, Cyclic and SCC behavior of Alloy 152 weld in a PWR environment, in: Proc. ASME PVP Conf, 2011, pp. PVP2011-57463.
  20. B. Alexandreanu, SCC behavior of Alloy 52M/182 weld overlay in a PWR environment, in: Proc. ASME PVP Conf, 2011, pp. PVP2011-57465.
  21. M. Kerr, M.R. Hill, M.D. Olson, Study of residual stresses in compact tension specimens fabricated from weld metal, Corrosion 69 (2013) 975-985. https://doi.org/10.5006/0832
  22. R.B. Rebak, Z. Szklarska, The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, Corrosion 38 (1996) 971-988. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-938X(96)00183-7
  23. J.M. Boursier, D. Desjardins, F. Vallant, The influence of the strain-rate in the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature primary water, Corrosion 37 (1995) 493-508. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-938X(94)00158-3
  24. B.A. Young, X. Gao, T.S. Srivatsan, P.J. King, The response of Alloy 690 tubing in a pressurized water reactor environment, Mater. Des. 28 (2007) 373-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2005.10.001
  25. B.A. Young, X. Gao, T.S. Srivatsan, A study of life prediction differences for a nickel-base Alloy 690 using a threshold and a non-threshold model, J. Nucl. Mater. 394 (2009) 63-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2009.08.007
  26. S.C. Yu, Y.S. Chang, Y.J. Kim, S.W. Kim, S.S. Hwang, H.P. Kim, Comparison of experimental and numerical analysis data for BMI mock-up with dissimilar metal welds, in: Trans. of ASME PVP Conf, 2008. PVP2008-61557.
  27. J.W. Hutchinson, K.W. Neale, Finite strain J2 deformation theory, in: Proceeding of the IUTAM Symposium on Finite Elasticity, 1980, ISBN 90 247 2629 8, pp. 237-247.
  28. W.H. Henry, W.A. Ronald, Deformable Bodies and Their Material Behavior, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2005.
  29. Special Metals Corporation, Inconel 600 information. www.specialmetals.com, 2008.
  30. Special Metals Corporation, Inconel 690 information. www.specialmetals.com, 2009.
  31. ABAQUS Version 6.13, ABAQUS Standard/User's Manual, Simulia Inc., 2013.
  32. D. Ruldland, Y. Chen, T. Zhang, G. Wilkowski, J. Broussard, G. White, Comparison of welding residual stress solutions for control rod drive mechanism nozzles, in: Trans. Of ASME PVP Conference, 2007, pp. 997-1011.
  33. P.I. Frank, Introduction to Heat Transfer, sixth ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
  34. D.F. Justin, Welding Simulations of Aluminum Alloy Joints by Finite Element Analysis, Master's Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and state University, 2002.
  35. KHNP, in: Standard Procedure for Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis. Rev vol. 1, 2013.
  36. ASTM E647-15, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates, ASTM International, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States.
  37. EPRI, Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Thick-Wall Alloy 600 Material, MRP-55, 2002.
  38. EPRI, Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82, 182, and 132 Welds, MRP-115, 2004.
  39. EPRI, Materials Reliability Program: Resistance of Alloys 690, 152, and 52 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking, MRP-237, 2013.
  40. PNNL, SCC Crack Growth Rate Testing of Nickel-Base Alloy 690 and Alloy 152 in PWR Primary Water, USNRC Project N6007, 2008.
  41. S.W. Kim, Y.S. Lim, D.J. Kim, S.S. Hwang, H.P. Kim, M.J. Choi, Evaluation of PWSCC crack growth rate of cold-worked Alloy 690, in: The 10th International Workshop on the Integrity of Nuclear Components, 2013.
  42. USNRC, U.S. Plant Experience with Alloy 600 Cracking and Boric Acid Corrosion of Light-Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials, NUREG-1823, 2005.
  43. USNRC, Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nickel-Base Alloys 690 and 152 Weld in Simulated PWR Environment, CR-7137, 2009.
  44. USNRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Investigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nickel-Base Alloys, CR-7103, 2012.
  45. EPRI, Resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 690 in Pressurized Water Reactors, MRP-258, 2009.
  46. Y.S. Lim, D.J. Kim, S.W. Kim, H.P. Kim, Crack growth and cracking behavior of Alloy 600/182 and Alloy 690/152 welds in simulated PWR primary water, in: Nucl. Eng. & Tech 51, 2019 press in.
  47. S.W. Kim, K.H. Eom, Y.S. Lim, D.J. Kim, PWSCC growth rate model of alloy 690 for head penetration nozzles of Korean PWRs, in: Nucl. Eng. & Tech. 51, 2019 press in.