- Volume 51 Issue 7
DOI QR Code
Consistency issues in quantitative safety goals of nuclear power plants in Korea
- Kim, Ji Suk (Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Chung-Ang University) ;
- Kim, Man Cheol (Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Chung-Ang University)
- Received : 2018.12.12
- Accepted : 2019.05.21
- Published : 2019.10.25
As the safety level of nuclear power plants (NPPs) relates to the safety of individuals, society, and the environment, it is important to establish NPP safety goals. In Korea, two quantitative health objectives and one large release frequency (LRF) criterion were formally set as quantitative safety goals for NPPs by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission in 2016. The risks of prompt and cancer fatalities from NPPs should be less than 0.1% of the overall risk, and the frequency of nuclear accidents releasing more than 100 TBq of Cs-137 should not exceed 1E-06 per reactor year. This paper reviews the hierarchical structure of safety goals in Korea, its relationship with those of other countries, and the relationships among safety goals and subsidiary criteria like core damage frequency and large early release frequency. By analyzing the effect of the release of 100 TBq of Cs-137 via consequence analysis codes in eight different accident scenarios, it was shown that meeting the LRF criterion results in negligible prompt fatalities in the surrounding area. Hence, the LRF criterion dominates the safety goals for Korean NPPs. Safety goals must be consistent with national policy, international standards, and the goals of other counties.
Supported by : Chung-Ang University, Korea Foundation of Nuclear Safety (KOFONS), National Research Foundation of Korea
- OECD/NEA, Probabilistic Risk Criteria and Safety Goals, NEA/CSNI/R(2009)16, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Paris, France, 2009.
- WENRA Reactor Harmonization Working Group, Safety Objectives for New Power Reactors, Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association, December, 2009.
- OECD/NEA MDEP Subcommittee, The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals - A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/ Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Paris, France, January, 2011.
- Lisa Bengtsson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, Jukka Rossi, Michael Knochenhauer, Probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants; phases 2-4/ final report, Soc. Sci. Med 35 (May 2011). Research Report 2010.
- IAEA, Technical Meeting on Development of a TECDOC on Development and Application of a Safety Goals Framework for Nuclear Installations, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, July 8-12, 2013.
- Genn Saji, A new approach to reactor safety goals in the framework of INES, Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 80 (2003) 143-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0951-8320(03)00025-5
- Genn Saji, Safety goals in 'risk-informed, performance-based' Regulation, Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 80 (2003) 163-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0951-8320(03)00026-7
- Chao-jun Li, Chun-ming Zhang, Yan Chen, Jia-xu Zuo, Jia-yun Chen, The study on safety goals and public acceptance of nuclear power, Energy Procedia 39 (2013) 415-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.07.231
- Berg Heinz-Peter, Development of a framework of safety goals for nuclear installations and its application in Germany, Journal of Polish Safety and Reliability Association Summer Safety and Reliability Seminars 6 (1) (2015) 15-22.
- CNSC, Summary Report of the International Workshop on Multi-Unit Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, November 17-20, 2014.
- Jack Vecchiarelli, Dinnie Keith, John Luxat, Development of a Whole-Site PSA Methodology, COG-13-9034 R0, CANDU Owners Group Inc., February 2014.
- Joon-Eon Yang, Safety Goal, Multi-Unit Risk and PSA Uncertainty, Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 29-30, 2015.
- Gyunyoung Heo, Man Cheol Kim, JiWoong Yoon, Inn Seock Kim, Moosung Jae, Gap analysis between single-unit and multi-unit psas for Korean NPPs, in: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (PSAM 13), Seoul, Korea, October 2-7, 2016.
- Mohammad Modarres, Mark Leonard, Welter Kent, Jason Pottorf, Options for defining LRF for applications to the Level-2 PRA and licensing of SMRs, in: Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Analysis (PSA 2011), Wilmington, NC, USA, March 13-17, 2011.
- Mohammad Modarres, Taotao Zhou, Mahmoud Massoud, Advances in multiunit nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment, Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 157 (2017) 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2016.08.005
- Daniel W. Hudson, Mohammad Modarres, Multiunit accident contributions to quantitative health objectives: a safety goal policy analysis, Nucl. Technol. 197 (3) (2017) 227-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2016.1273714
- Michael Knochenhauer, Jan-Erik Holmberg, Guidance for the definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria, in: Proceedings of of the 10th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference (PSAM 10), 7-11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA, Paper 245, 2010.
- USNRC, Policy statement for safety goals for the operations of nuclear power plants, Fed. Regist. (1986), 30028.
- SKI/SSI, Utslappsbegransande atgarder vid svara hardhaverier (Release mitigating measures after severe accidents), SKI ref 7.1.24 1082/85, SKI/SSI, 1985.
- STUK, Limitation of public exposure in the environment of and limitation of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants, Radiation And Nuclear Safety radiat. Nucl. Saf.Authority (STUK) 7 (1) (1992). Guide YVL.
- CNSC, Design of reactor facilities: nuclear power plants, 2014. Regulatory Document REGDOC-2.5.2, 987-7-100-23762-6.
- NSC, Interim Report on the Discussion of Safety Goals, Special Committee on Nuclear Safety Goals of Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), December 2003.
- The Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority, Outline of Nuclear Regulation of Japan - Reference Documents for the IAEA IRRS Mission, November 2015.
- Ministry of Science and Technology, Nuclear Safety Policy Statement, the 3rd Nuclear Safety Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea, 1994.
- H.C. Kim, C.J. Lee, Y.H. Ryoo, W.K. Shin, Consideration for Establishing Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants, Transactions on 1999 Korea, Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, 1999.
- Ministry of Science and Technology, Policy for Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (Draft), the 17th Nuclear Safety Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea, 2001.
- NSSC, Rules Related to Specific Criteria for Accident Management Scope and Accident Management Capability, NSSC Notification 2016-2, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, Seoul, Korea, 2016.
- USNRC, Individual Plant Examination Program: Perspectives on Reactor Safety and Plant Performance, NUREG-1560, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1997.
- USNRC, Feasibility Study for a Risk-Informed and Performance-Based Regulatory Structure for Future Plant Licensing, NUREG-1860, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 2007.
- USNRC, Severe Accident Risks: an Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG-1150, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1990.
- David Okrent, The safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission, Science 236 (1987) 296-300. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3563510
- Atomic Energy Commission, Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram for Water Cooled Power Reactors, WASH-1270, Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC, 1973.
- USNRC, Recommendation on Large Release Definition, SECY-93-138, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1993.
- USNRC, Draft Regulatory Guides, Standard Review Plans and NUREG Document in Support of Risk Informed Regulation for Power Reactors, SECY-97-077, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1997.
- USNRC, Modifications to the Reactor Safety Goal Policy Statement, SECY-00-0077, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 2000.
- Mi Ro Seo, Tae Young Shin, Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal Related with the Limitation of Cs-137 Release, in: Transactions 2016 Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, October 27-28, 2016.
- C.R. Molenkamp, N.E. Bixler, C.W. Morrow, J.V. Ramsdell Jr., J.A. Mitchell, Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model, NUREG/CR-6853, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 2004.
- D. Chanin, M.L. Young, J. Randall, Code Manual for MACCS2, NUREG/CR-6613, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1998.
- J.V. Ramsdell Jr., G.F. Athey, S.A. McGuire, L.K. Brandon, RASCAL 4: Description of Models and Methods, NUREG-1940, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, December 2012.
- J.V. Ramsdell Jr., C.A. Simonen, K.W. Burk, Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET), Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington, 1994. PNWD-2224 HEDR, Battelle.
- G. Sugiyama, S.T. Chan, A new meteorological data assimilation model for real-time emergency response, in: Proceedings of the 10th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Phoenix, AZ, USA, 11-16 January, 1998.
- J.S. Nasstrom, G. Sugiyama, J.M. Leone Jr., D.L. Ermak, A real-time atmospheric dispersion modeling system, in: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Long Beach, CA, USA, Jan. 9-14, 2000.
- L. Soffer, S.B. Burson, C.M. Ferrell, R.Y. Lee, J.N. Ridgely, Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG-1465, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, February 1995.
- T.J. McKenna, J.G. Glitter, Source Term Estimation during Incident Response to Severe Nuclear Power Plant Accidents, NUREG-1228, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, October 1988.