A Comparison between Factor Structure and Semantic Representation of Personality Test Items Using Latent Semantic Analysis

잠재의미분석을 활용한 성격검사문항의 의미표상과 요인구조의 비교

  • Received : 2019.10.01
  • Accepted : 2019.10.02
  • Published : 2019.09.30


To investigate how personality test items are understood by participants, their semantic representations were explored by Latent Semantic Analysis, In this thesis, Semantic Similarity Matrix was proposed, which contains cosine similarity of semantic representations between test items and personality traits. The matrix was compared to traditional factor loading matrix. In preliminary study, semantic space was constructed from the passages describing the five traits, collected from 154 undergraduate participants. In study 1, positive correlation was observed between the factor loading matrix of Korean shorten BFI and its semantic similarity matrix. In study 2, short personality test was constructed from semantic similarity matrix, and observed that its factor loading matrix was positively correlated with the semantic similarity matrix as well. In conclusion, the results implies that the factor structure of personality test can be inferred from semantic similarity between the items and factors.


LSA;EFA;construct validity;Big Five;semantic representation


  1. 강승식 (2002). 한국어 형태소 분석과 정보 검색. 서울: 홍릉과학출판사.
  2. 김지현, 김복환, 하문선 (2011). 간편형 한국어 BFI(Big Five Inventory) 타당화 연구. 인간이해, 32, 47-65.
  3. 민경환 (2002). 성격심리학. 서울: 법문사.
  4. 박홍석, 이정미 (2016). 정적 정서 부적 정서 척도(PANAS)의 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 일반, 35(4), 617-641.
  5. 이태헌 (2003). ELSA를 이용한 주제별 문서분류 및 다의어 의미 해소. 석사학위논문, 서울대학교, 서울.
  6. 김청택, 이태헌 (2002). 뇌와 인지 모형: 잠재의미 분석을 사용한 문서분류. 한국심리학회: 인지 및 생물, 14, 309-319.
  7. 이태헌, 김청택 (2004). LSA 모형에서 다의어 의미의 표상. 인지과학, 15, 1-53.
  8. 이현희, 김은정, 이민규 (2003). 한국판 정적 정서 및 부적 정서 척도(Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS)의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 22(4), 935-946.
  9. 지혜성, 조준희, 임희석 (2010). 한국어 문장 표절 유형을 고려한 유사 문장 판별. 한국컴퓨터교육학회논문지, 13(6), 79-89.
  10. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1-26.
  11. Cattell, R. B. (1943). The description of personality: Basic traits resolved into clusters. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38, 476-506.
  12. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
  13. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272.
  14. Galton, E. (1884). Measurement of character. Fortnightly Review, 36, 179-185
  15. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative "description of personality": The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216-1229.
  16. Gong, Y., & Liu, X. (2001). Generic text summarization using relevance measure and latent semantic analysis. In Proceedings of the 24th annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 19-25.
  17. Graesser, A. C., Singer, M., & Trabasso, T. (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension. Psychological Review, 101(3), 371-395.
  18. Hill, F., Reichart, R., & Korhonen, A. (2015). Simlex-999: evaluating semantic models with (genuine) similarity estimation. Computational Linguistics, 41(4), 665-695.
  19. Hofstee, W. K., Kiers, H. A., De Raad, B., Goldberg, L. R., Ostendorf, F. (1997). A comparison of big-five structures of personality traits in Dutch, English, and German. European Journal of Personality, 11(1), 15-31.<15::AID-PER273>3.0.CO;2-8
  20. John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2(1999), 102-138.
  21. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141-151.
  22. Kwantes, P. J., Derbentseva, N., Lam, Q., Vartanian, O., & Marmurek, H. H. (2016). Assessing the big five personality traits with latent semantic analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 229-233.
  23. Tucker, L. R., & MacCallum, R. C. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis. Unpublished manuscript, Ohio State University, Columbus.
  24. Landauer, T. K., Laham, D., Rehder, B., & Schreiner, M. E. (1997). How well can passage meaning be derived without using word order? A comparison of latent semantic analysis and humans. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 412-417.
  25. Landauer, T. K., & Dumais, S. T. (1997). A solution to Plato's problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104(2), 211.
  26. Le, Q., & Mikolov, T. (2014). Distributed representations of sentences and documents. In Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), 1188-1196.
  27. Finkelstein, L., Gabrilovich, E., Matias, Y., Rivlin, E., Solan, Z., Wolfman, G., & Ruppin, E. (2002). Placing search in context: The concept revisited. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 20(1), 116-131.
  28. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, E T. (1985). Comparison of EPI and psychoticism scales with measures of the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 587-597.
  29. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
  30. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1989). The structure of interpersonal traits: Wiggins's circumplex and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(4), 586-595.
  31. Nakov, P., Popova, A., & Mateev, P. (2001). Weight functions impact on LSA performance. EuroConference RANLP, 187-193.
  32. Nigg, J. T., John, O. P., Blaskey, L. G., Huang-Pollock, C. L., Willicut, E. G., Hinshaw, S. P., & Pennington, B. (2002). Big five dimensions and ADHD symptoms: Links between personality traits and clinical symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(2), 451-469.
  33. Noftle, E. E., & Robins, R. W. (2007). Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 116-130.
  34. Norman, W. T. (1967). 2800 personality trait descriptors: Normative operating characteristics for a university population. Ann Arbor: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.
  35. Ozer, D. J., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual. Review of Psychology, 57, 401-421.
  36. Saucier, G. (2002). Orthogonal markers for orthogonal factors: The case of the big five. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 1-31.
  37. Thurstone, L. L. (1934). The vectors of mind. Psychological Review, 41, 1-32.
  38. Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. C., & Rasinski, K. (2000). The psychology of survey response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  39. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1063-1070.
  40. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20(2), 158-177.
  41. Wild, F. (2014). lsa: Latent Semantic Analysis: R package version 0.73.