DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Biomechanical Analysis on Change of Toe-out Angle in Squat

스쿼트 시 Toe-out 각도 변화에 따른 운동역학적 변인 분석

  • Song, Hyeong Kyeong (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Konkuk University) ;
  • So, Jae Moo (Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2019.06.18
  • Accepted : 2019.07.17
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to suggest correct and effective way of squat through biomechanical analysis variables on the change of the toe-out angle. Method: 7 high school male weightlifter (age: $17.57{\pm}0.53yrs$, height: $174.0{\pm}3.93cm$, weight: $81.0{\pm}9.17kg$, 1RM: $164.29{\pm}20.7kg$) participated in this study. Results: Angle of the hip joint at E2 was smaller than toe-out angle was in $20^{\circ}$ than in $0^{\circ}$ (p<.05). Angular velocity of the foot joint at E1 and E3 was quicker that in $10^{\circ}$ than in $30^{\circ}$ (p<.05). Anterior-posterior stability index was greater that toe-out angle was in $30^{\circ}$ than in $0^{\circ}$ (p<.05). In average iEMG of flexion phase, VM of right, left leg showed high activity at toe-out angle $30^{\circ}$. In average iEMG of flexion phase, extension phase and in peak iEMG, RF of right leg, VM and VL of left leg showed high activity at all of the toe-out angles. In average iEMG of flexion phase, extension phase and in peak iEMG, all of the muscles activity of right leg showed high in $10^{\circ}$ and low in $0^{\circ}$, $30^{\circ}$. Conclusion: It is judged that setting the toe-out angle $10^{\circ}$ in squat help to efficiently use muscles and ensure stability.

Keywords

Squat;Toe-out;Angle;Stability index;EMG

References

  1. Abdel-Aziz, Y. i. & Karara, H. M. (1971). Direct linear transformation from comparator coordinates in object space coordinates in close range photogrammetry. Proceedings of the ASP Symposium of Close-Range Photogrammetry. Urbana: University of illinois..
  2. Chae, W. S., Jeong, H. K. & Jang, J. i. (2007). Effect of Different Heel Plates on Muscle Activities During the Squat. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 17(2), 113-121. https://doi.org/10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.113
  3. Choi, J. J. (2018). Effect of the Heights of Shoe insoles on Biomechanics of Squat Motions. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Chonnam National University.
  4. Cook, J. L., Khan, K. M. & Purdam, C. R. (2001). Conservative treatment of Paterllar Tendinopathy. Physical Sports Medicine, 28(6), 31-46.
  5. Donnelly, D. V., Berg, W. P. & Fiske, D. M. (2006). The Effect of the Direction of Gaze on the Kinematics of Squat Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 145-150.
  6. Flanagan, S., Salem, G. J. & Wang, M. Y. (2003). Squatting Exercise in Older Adults: Kinematic and Kinetic Comparisons. Medicind and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(4), 635. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000058364.47973.06
  7. Francis, R. S. & Scott, D. E. (1974). Hypertrophy of the vastus medialis in knee extensoin. Physical Therapy, 54(10), 1066-1070. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/54.10.1066
  8. Fry, A. C. (1993). Coaching Considerations for the Barbell Squat-Part i. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(2), 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1519/0744-0049(1993)015<0060:BOACDW>2.3.CO;2
  9. Fry, A. C. (1993). Coaching Considerations for the Barbell Squat-Part ii. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(3), 28-32. https://doi.org/10.1519/0744-0049(1993)015<0028:CCFTBS>2.3.CO;2
  10. Hanten, W. P. & Schulthies, S. S. (1990). Exercise effect on electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscles. Physical Therapy, 70(9), 561-565. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/70.9.561
  11. Hyun, D. S., Ahn, H. J., Yeom, D. C., Won, J. H., Cho, J. Y. & Cho, i. H. (2013). The effect of different leg position during squat performance on power output of spinal and lower extremities in elite collegiate weight lifters. The Korean Journal of Sport, 11(4), 121-130.
  12. Jeon, H. J. (2006). Compare and Analyze the Effect of Three Types of Resistance Exercises--Squats, Leg Flexes and Leg Extensions--on Muscular Activity. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Kyungpook National University.
  13. Jun, Y. W. (2018). Comparative Study on Lower Limb Muscle Activities Depending on Toe Angles in Squat Movement. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Pukyong National University.
  14. Kim, H. S. (2014). A Comparative Analysis Through EMG of the Lower Half of the Body When Doing Full and Half Squat. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Pukyong National University.
  15. Kim, K. H., Choi, H. S. & Go, S. S. (2017). Effect of stance width and angles of knee on repetition, total work and EMG during squat. The Asian Journal of Kinesiology, 19(3), 27-34.
  16. Kim, Y. H. (2010). An Analysis of Muscle Activations by the increase of Load in Squat. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Education, Pusan University of Foreign Studies.
  17. Kim, Y. H. & Phuong, B. T. T. (2010). Analysis of Muscle Forces and Joint Moments during Squat Exercise. Journal of Korean Society for Precision Engineering, 987-988.
  18. Lam, P. L. & Na, G. Y. (2001). Activation of the quadriceps muscle during semisquatting with different hip and knee position in patients with anterior knee pain. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 80(11), 804-808. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002060-200111000-00003
  19. Lee, S. D. (2010). Effect of weighs on lower extremity muscular activity during squat exercise. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Kookmin University.
  20. Lee, S. D., Lee, J. H., Park, E. J., Lee, K. K., Sohn, J. H., Ryue, J. J. & Kim, S. B. (2011). Kinematic, Kinetic and EMG Pattern During Squat Exercise in Smith Machine with Different Loads. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 22(2), 1884-1893. https://doi.org/10.24985/kjss.2011.22.2.1884
  21. Lieb, F. J. & Perry, J. (1968). Quadriceps function. An anatomical and mechanical study using amputated limbs. Journal of Bon and Joint Surgery, 50, 1066-1070.
  22. Lorenzetti, S., Ostermann, M., Zeidler, F., Zimmer, P., Jentsch, L., List, R. & Schellenberg, F. (2018). How to Squat? Effect of Various Stance Width, Foot Placement Angles and Level of Experience on Knee, Hip and Trunk Motion and Loading. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 10(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0090-8
  23. Na, Y. C. (2013). Muscle Activity Analysis of Erector Spinae and Rectus Femoris Depending of Toe Out Angles in Squat Movement. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Chungmam National University.
  24. Park, H. S., Lee, S. N., Lee, T. H. & Park, G. D. (2016). Comparative Analysis on Muscle Activities of Lower Limb Depending on the Types and Load of Squat Exercise. The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, 24(1), 45-51.
  25. Park, S. H. (2011). Biomechanical analysis of Low Extremity Motion and the Low Back Loading During Squat. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Yonsei University.
  26. Pocock, G. (1963). Electromygraphic study of the quadriceps during resistance exercise. American Physical of Therapy Association, 43, 427-434.
  27. Son, W. W. (2007). A Study on Waist and Lower Extremities Muscle Activities According to Foot's Positions During Flexion/Extension of Legs. Unpublished Master's Thsis. Graduate School of Gangnung National University.
  28. Speakman, H. G. & Weisberg, J. (1977). The vastus medialis controversy. Physiotherapy, 63(8), 249-254.
  29. Statistics Korea. (2017). Survey on Citizens' Sports Participation.
  30. Walton, J. S. (1981). Close-range cine-photogrammetry: A generalized technique for quantifying gross human motion. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Thsis. Pennsylvania State University.
  31. Yoo, W. K., Lee, C. H. & Lee, H. J. (2004). Effects of a Combined Posture of the Lower Extremity on Activity of the Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscle and Vastus Lateralis Muscle During Static Squat Exercise. Physical Therapy Korea, 11(3), 1-9.
  32. Yoon, W. R., Park, S. H., Park, E. J., Jeong, C. H., Park, J. H. & Yoon, S. H. (2018). Effects of Center of Pressure on Muscle Activations and Joint Range Motion of Lower Extremities during Squat. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 28(1), 37-43.