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A Study of Radiation Doses to the Patient and Medical Team at Embolization Procedures

  • Castilho, Alvaro Vilas Boas (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP) ;
  • Szjenfeld, Denis (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP) ;
  • Nalli, Darcio (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP) ;
  • Fornazari, Vinicius (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP) ;
  • Moreira, Antonio Carlos (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP) ;
  • Medeiros, Regina Bitelli (Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP)
  • Received : 2019.01.21
  • Accepted : 2019.04.03
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to estimate occupational doses and patient peak skin doses (PSDs) during interventional radiology procedures. Materials and Methods: We examined data from brain embolization (n = 30), hepatic chemoembolization (n = 50), and uterine embolization (n = 12). The PSDs were measured using radiochromic film around the patient's head (group 1) or abdominal/pelvic region (group 2). Acquisition technical data and kerma-area products (KAP) were also recorded. Occupational doses were measured using $Instadose^{TM}$ dosimeters near the left eye region (LER), chest, and left ankle. Results and Discussion: The third quartile (median) KAP values were $408.1(235.3)Gy{\cdot}cm^2$ for group 1 and $584.4(449.4)Gy{\cdot}cm^2$ for group 2. The average PSDs were greatest during vascular procedures, reaching 1,004.4 (786.4) mGy, and the highest PSD was 2,352.6 mGy (during hepatic chemoembolization). The third quartile (median) occupational doses were 0.35 (0.21) mSv at the LER, 0.25 (0.15) mSv at the chest, and 1.47 (0.64) mSv at the left ankle. Occupational doses at the LER were higher than at the chest, which highlights the importance of protective glasses and suspended shields. The occupational doses at the ankle region were also high, which highlights the importance of using a lead-lined curtain attached to the table. Conclusion: The results indicate that physicians can reach, for eye region, the weekly occupational dose limit after around 15 procedures, even when using proper protection. The average PSD values were below the threshold for tissue reactions, although the complexity of these procedures emphasises the importance of considering related risks.

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