Extra-phase Image Generation for Its Potential Use in Dose Evaluation for a Broad Range of Respiratory Motion

  • Lee, Hyun Su (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University) ;
  • Choi, Chansoo (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University) ;
  • Kim, Chan Hyeong (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University) ;
  • Han, Min Cheol (Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Yeom, Yeon Soo (Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Nguyen, Thang Tat (School of Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, Seonghoon (Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Choi, Sang Hyoun (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Lee, Soon Sung (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Kim, Jina (The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Hwang, JinHo (The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Kang, Youngnam (The Catholic University of Korea)
  • Received : 2019.04.10
  • Accepted : 2019.08.08
  • Published : 2019.09.30


Background: Four-dimensional computed tomographic (4DCT) images are increasingly used in clinic with the growing need to account for the respiratory motion of the patient during radiation treatment. One of the reason s that makes the dose evaluation using 4DCT inaccurate is a change of the patient respiration during the treatment session, i.e., intrafractional uncertainty. Especially, when the amplitude of the patient respiration is greater than the respiration range during the 4DCT acquisition, such an organ motion from the larger respiration is difficult to be represented with the 4DCT. In this paper, the method to generate images expecting the organ motion from a respiration with extended amplitude was proposed and examined. Materials and Methods: We propose a method to generate extra-phase images from a given set of the 4DCT images using deformable image registration (DIR) and linear extrapolation. Deformation vector fields (DVF) are calculated from the given set of images, then extrapolated according to respiratory surrogate. The extra-phase images are generated by applying the extrapolated DVFs to the existing 4DCT images. The proposed method was tested with the 4DCT of a physical 4D phantom. Results and Discussion: The tumor position in the generated extra-phase image was in a good agreement with that in the gold-standard image which is separately acquired, using the same 4DCT machine, with a larger range of respiration. It was also found that we can generate the best quality extra-phase image by using the maximum inhalation phase (T0) and maximum exhalation phase (T50) images for extrapolation. Conclusion: In the present study, a method to construct extra-phase images that represent expanded respiratory motion of the patient has been proposed and tested. The movement of organs from a larger respiration amplitude can be predicted by the proposed method. We believe the method may be utilized for realistic simulation of radiation therapy.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC)


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