DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of gut microbial diversity of breast-fed and formula-fed infants

모유수유와 분유수유에 따른 영아 장내 미생물 군집의 특징

  • Received : 2019.07.17
  • Accepted : 2019.08.26
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

The intestinal microbiomes vary according to the factors such environment, age and diet. The purpose of this study was to compare the gut microbial diversity between Korean infants receiving breast-fed milk and formula-fed milk. We analyzed microbial communities in stool samples collected from 80 Korean infants using next generation sequencing. Phylum level analysis revealed that microbial communities in both breast-fed infants group (BIG) was dominated by Actinobacteria ($74.22{\pm}3.48%$). Interestingly, the phylum Actinobacteria was dominant in formula-fed infants group A (FIG-A) at $73.46{\pm}4.12%$, but the proportions of phylum Actinobacteria were lower in formulafed infants group B and C (FIG-B and FIG-C) at $66.52{\pm}5.80%$ and $68.88{\pm}4.33%$. The most abundant genus in the BIG, FIG-A, FIG-B, and FIG-C was Bifidobacterium, comprising $73.09{\pm}2.31%$, $72.25{\pm}4.93%$, $63.81{\pm}6.05%$, and $67.42{\pm}5.36%$ of the total bacteria. Furthermore, the dominant bifidobacterial species detected in BIG and FIG-A was Bifidobacterium longum at $68.77{\pm}6.07%$ and $66.85{\pm}4.99%$ of the total bacteria. In contrast, the proportions of B. longum of FIG-B and FIG-C were $58.94{\pm}6.20%$ and $61.86{\pm}5.31%$ of the total bacteria. FIG-A showed a community similar to BIG, which may be due to the inclusion of galactooligosaccharide, galactosyllactose, synergy-oligosaccharide, bifidooligo and improvement material of gut microbiota contained in formula-milk. We conclude that 5-Bifidus factor contained in milk powder promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium genus in the intestines.

Keywords

Bifidobacterium longum;5-Bifidus factor;breast-fed;formula-fed;next generation sequencing

References

  1. Azad MB, Konya T, Maughan H, Guttman DS, Field CJ, Chari RS, Sears MR, Becker AB, Scott JA, Kozyrskyj AL, and CHILD Study Investigators. 2013. Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. CMAJ 185, 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121189
  2. Berstad A, Raa J, Midtvedt T, and Valeur J. 2016. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria-the fledgling cuckoos of the gut?. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 27, 31557.
  3. Bezirtzoglou E, Tsiotsias A, and Welling GW. 2011. Microbiota profile in feces of breast-and formula-fed newborns by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Anaerobe 17, 478-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.03.009
  4. Chu DM, Ma J, Prince AL, Antony KM, Seferovic MD, and Aagaard KM. 2017. Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery. Nat. Med. 23, 314-326. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.4272
  5. Dawood MA, Koshio S, Ishikawa M, Yokoyama S, El Basuini MF, Hossain MS, Nhu TH, Dossou S, and Moss AS. 2016. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 49, 275-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2015.12.047
  6. Depeint F, Tzortzis G, Vulevic J, I'Anson K, and Gibson GR. 2008. Prebiotic evaluation of a novel galactooligosaccharide mixture produced by the enzymatic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171, in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87, 785-791. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.3.785
  7. Dominguez-Bello MG, De Jesus-Laboy KM, Shen N, Cox LM, Amir A, Gonzalez A, Bokulich NA, Song SJ, Hoashi M, Rivera-Vinas JI, et al. 2016. Partial restoration of the microbiota of cesareanborn infants via vaginal microbial transfer. Nat. Med. 22, 250-253. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.4039
  8. Grice EA and Segre JA. 2012. The human microbiome: our second genome. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 13, 151-170. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-090711-163814
  9. Groer MW, Luciano AA, Dishaw LJ, Ashmeade TL, Miller E, and Gilbert JA. 2014. Development of the preterm infant gut microbiome: a research priority. Microbiome 2, 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-2618-2-38
  10. Gronlund MM, Gueimonde M, Laitinen K, Kociubinski G, Gronroos T, Salminen S, and Isolauri E. 2007. Maternal breast-milk and intestinal bifidobacteria guide the compositional development of the Bifidobacterium microbiota in infants at risk of allergic disease. Clin. Exp. Allergy 37, 1764-1772. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02849.x
  11. Johnson CL and Versalovic J. 2012. The human microbiome and its potential importance to pediatrics. Pediatrics 129, 950-960. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2736
  12. Kumar S, Pandey RK, Negi H, Sharma P, Pandey P, Pandey Y, and Kumar K. 2018. Role of probiotics in health improvement: Adaptations, advantages and their uses. Asian J. Agric. Food Sci. 2, 1-15.
  13. Lee JK, Cho HR, Kim KY, Lim JM, Jung GW, Sohn JH, and Choi JS. 2014. The growth-stimulating effects of fermented rice extract (FRe) on lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 20, 479-483.
  14. Li C, Liu Y, Jiang Y, Xu N, and Lei J. 2017. Immunomodulatory constituents of human breast milk and immunity from bronchiolitis. Ital. J. Pediatr. 43, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-017-0326-3
  15. Minami J, Odamaki T, Hashikura N, Abe F, and Xiao JZ. 2016. Lysozyme in breast milk is a selection factor for bifidobacterial colonisation in the infant intestine. Benef. Microbes 7, 53-60. https://doi.org/10.3920/BM2015.0041
  16. Mueller NT, Bakacs E, Combellick J, Grigoryan Z, and Dominguez-Bell, MG. 2015. The infant microbiome development: mom matters. Trends Mol. Med. 21, 109-117.
  17. Pannaraj PS, Li F, Cerini C, Bender JM, Yang S, Rollie A, Zabih S, Lincez PJ, Bittinger K, Bailey A, et al. 2017. Association between breast milk bacterial communities and establishment and development of the infant gut microbiome. JAMA Pediatr. 171, 647-654. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0378
  18. Roberfroid MB. 2007. Inulin-type fructans: Functional food ingredients. J. Nutr. 137, 2493-2502. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2493S
  19. Shoaf K, Mulvey GL, Armstrong GD, and Hutkins RW. 2006. Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides reduce adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to tissue culture cells. Infect. Immun. 74, 6920-6928. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01030-06
  20. Stavropoulou E, Tsigalou C, and Bezirtzoglou E. 2018. Functions of the human intestinal microbiota in relation to functional foods. Erciyes Med. J. 40, 188-193. https://doi.org/10.5152/etd.2018.18169
  21. Sumiyoshi W, Urashima T, Nakamura T, Arai I, Nagasawa T, Saito T, Tsumura N, Wang B, Brand-Miller J, Watanabe Y, et al. 2004. Galactosyllactoses in the milk of Japanese women: changes in concentration during the course of lactation. J. Appl. Glycosci. 51, 341-344. https://doi.org/10.5458/jag.51.341
  22. Turin CG, Zea-Vera A, Rueda MS, Mercado E, Carcamo CP, Zegarra J, Bellomo S, Cam L, Castaneda A, Ochoa TJ, and NEOLACTO Research Group. 2017. Lactoferrin concentration in breast milk of mothers of low-birth-weight newborns. J. Perinatol. 37, 507-512. https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2016.265
  23. Turroni F, Peano C, Pass DA, Foroni E, Severgnini M, Claesson MJ, Kerr C, Hourihane J, Murray D, Fuligni F, et al. 2012. Diversity of bifidobacteria within the infant gut microbiota. PLoS One 7, e36957. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036957
  24. Tzortzis G, Goulas AK, Gee JM, and Gibson GR. 2005. A novel galactooligosaccharide mixture increases the bifidobacterial population numbers in a continuous in vitro fermentation system and in the proximal colonic contents of pigs in vivo. J. Nutr. 135, 1726-1731. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.7.1726
  25. Vazquez-Gutierrez P, de Wouters T, Werder J, Chassard C, and Lacroix C. 2016. High iron-sequestrating bifidobacteria inhibit enteropathogen growth and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Front. Microbiol. 7, 1480.