DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of dietary vitamin levels on physiological responses, blood profiles, and reproductive performance in gestating sows

  • Jeong, Jae Hark (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Hong, Jin Su (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Han, Tae Hee (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Fang, Lin Hu (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Chung, Woo Lim (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Yoo Yong (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2019.09.02
  • Accepted : 2019.09.05
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin levels on physiological responses, blood profiles, and reproductive performance in gestating sows. A total of 52 F1 multiparous sows ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace$) with an average body weight of $223.5{\pm}31.7kg$, an average parity of $6.4{\pm}2.7$, and an average backfat thickness of $18.5{\pm}4.9mm$ were divided into four treatment groups considering body weight, backfat thickness, and parity in a completely randomized design with 13 replicates. The treatments were 100% (V1), 300% (V3), 600% (V6) and 900% (V9) of the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Swine. The gestation diet was formulated based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and contained 3,265 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg and 12.00% crude protein. During the lactation period, all sows were fed the same commercial lactation diet. There was no significant difference in body weight of gestating sows. However backfat thickness tended to increase when higher levels of vitamins were provided to gestating sows (p < 0.10). When high levels of dietary vitamins were provided, the body weight change of lactating sows increased (p < 0.01). When sows were fed higher levels of vitamins, the feed intake of lactating sows tended to decrease (p = 0.06). There were no treatment differences in the number of total born, born alive, stillbirth piglets, or the body weight of piglets according to different dietary vitamin level. As dietary vitamin level increased, the serum concentration of $25(OH)D_3$ in sows at 90 days of gestation linearly increased (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the serum vitamin E level of gestating sows was linearly increased with increasing dietary vitamin level (p < 0.05). The current NRC vitamin requirements are sufficient for gestating sows and higher levels of vitamins in the gestation diet did not show any beneficial effects for gestating and lactating sows.

Keywords

Gestating sow;Litter performance;Reproductive performance;Serum vitamin concentration;Vitamin levels

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. DeLuca HF. Vitamin D. In: DeLuca HF, editor, Handbook of lipid research. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1978. p.69-132.
  2. Halloran BP, Barthell E, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy and lactation in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1979;76:5549-53. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.76.11.5549
  3. Wuryastuti H, Stowe HD, Bull RW, Miller ER. Effects of vitamin E and selenium on immune responses of peripheral blood, colostrum, and milk leukocytes of sows. J Anim Sci. 1993;71:2464-72. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7192464x
  4. Tarin JJ, Perez-Albala S, Pertusa JF, Cano A. Oral administration of pharmacological doses of vitamins C and E reduces reproductive fitness and impairs the ovarian and uterine functions of female mice. Theriogenology. 2002;57:1539-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00636-2
  5. Stuart RL, Kane E. Vitamin E form, source may be important for swine. Feedstuffs. 2004;76:11-4.
  6. Pinelli-Saavedra A, Scaife JR. Pre-and postnatal transfer of vitamins E and C to piglets in sows supplemented with vitamin E and vitamin C. Live St Prod Sci. 2005;97:231-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.05.001
  7. Nelson JS. Pathology of vitamin E deficiency. In: Machlin LJ, editor. Vitamin E - A comprehensive treatise. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1980. p.397-428.
  8. Lindemann MD, Cromwell GL, Monegue HJ. Effects of inadequate and high levels of vitamin fortification on performance of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci. 1995;73:16.
  9. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
  10. Boyd RD, Williams N, Allee GL. Segregated parity structure in sow farms to capture nutrition, management and health opportunities. In: Proceedings of the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference; 2008. Indianapolis, IN. p.45-50.
  11. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2012.
  12. Chae BJ. Effects of dietary vitamins and trace minerals on growth and carcass quality in pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2000;13:243-51.
  13. Flohr JR, DeRouchey JM, Woodworth JC, Tokach MD, Goodband RD, Dritz SS. 2016. A survey of current feeding regimens for vitamins and trace minerals in the US swine industry. J Swine Health Prod. 2016;24:290-303.
  14. Lauridsen C, Halekoh U, Larsen T, Jensen SK. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:202-13. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-1976
  15. Flohr JR, Tokach MD, Dritz SS, DeRouchey JM, Goodband RD, Nelssen JL, et al. An evaluation of the effects of added vitamin D3 in maternal diets on sow and pig performance. J Anim Sci. 2014;92:594-603. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6792
  16. Mahan DC. Effects of dietary vitamin E on sow reproductive performance over a five-parity period. J Anim Sci. 1994;72:2870-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72112870x
  17. Shelton NW, Dritz SS, Nelssen JL, Tokach MD, Goodband RD, DeRouchey JM, et al. 2014. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. J Anim Sci. 2014;92:4547-56. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-7311
  18. Goldner WS, Stoner JA, Thompson J, Taylor K, Larson L, Erickson J, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in morbidly obese patients: a comparison with nonobese controls. Obes Surg. 2008;18:145-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-007-9315-8
  19. Emily Fish BS, Gretchen Beverstein NP, Diane Olson RD, Susan Reinhardt RN, Michael Garren MD, Jon Gould MD. Vitamin D status of morbidly obese bariatric surgery patients. J Surg Res. 2010;164:198-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.06.029
  20. Kong J, Li YC. Molecular mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E916-24. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00410.2005
  21. Ching S, Kashinkunti S, Niehaus MD, Zinser GM. Mammary adipocytes bioactivate 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and signal via vitamin D3 receptor, modulating mammary epithelial cell growth. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:3393-405. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.23273
  22. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:690-3. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.3.690
  23. Blum M, Dolnikowski G, Seyoum E, Harris SS, Booth SL, Peterson J, et al. Vitamin D3 in fat tissue. Endocrine. 2008;33:90-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-008-9051-4
  24. Vinh quoc Lu'o'ng, K and Nguyen LTH. The beneficial role of vitamin D in obesity: possible genetic and cell signaling mechanisms. Nutr J. 2013;12:89. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-89
  25. Dourmad JY. Effect of feeding level in the gilt during pregnancy on voluntary feed intake during lactation and changes in body composition during gestation and lactation. Livest Production Sci. 1991;27:309-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(91)90126-B
  26. Williams IH, Smits RJ. Body protein losses can be minimised during lactation. In: Batterham ES, editor. Manipulating pig production III. Werribee: Australasian Pig Science Association; 1991. p.73.
  27. Williams IH. Nutritional effects during lactation and during the interval from weaning to oestrus. In: Verstegen MWA, Moughan PJ, Schrama JW, editor. The lactating sow. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers; 1998. p.159-181.
  28. Woods SC, Seeley RJ, Porte D, Schwartz MW. Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis. Science. 1998;280:1378-83. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5368.1378
  29. Head RH, Williams IH, Batterham ES. Mammogenesis is influenced by pregnancy nutrition. In: Manipulating pig production III. Werribee: Australasian Pig Science Association; 1991. p.33.
  30. Head RH, Williams IH. Potential milk production in gilts. In: Hennessy DP, Cranwell PD, editors. Manipulating pig production V, Werribee: Australasian Pig Science Association; 1995. p.134.
  31. Mahan DC. Assessment of the influence of dietary vitamin E on sows and offspring in three parities: reproductive performance, tissue tocopherol, and effects on progeny. J Anim Sci. 1991;69:2904-17. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6972904x
  32. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Washington, DC: Inst. Medicine, National Academies Press; 1997.
  33. Wilborn BS, Kerth CR, Owsley WF, Jones WR, Frobish LT. Improving pork quality by feeding supranutritional concentrations of vitamin D3. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:218-24. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.821218x
  34. Zeni SN, Gregorio SD, Mautalen C. Bone mass changes during pregnancy and lactation in the rat. Bone. 1999;25:681-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(99)00228-8
  35. Hollis BW, Lambert PW, Horst RL. Factors affecting the antirachitic sterol content of native milk. In: Holick MF, Gray TK, Anast CS, editor. Perinatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1983. p.157-82.
  36. Lauridsen C, Jensen SK. Influence of supplementation of all-rac-${\alpha}$-tocopherol acetate preweaning and vitamin C postweaning on ${\alpha}$-tocopherol and immune responses in piglets. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:1274-86. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.8361274x