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Effect of stocker management program on beef cattle skeletal muscle growth characteristics, satellite cell activity, and paracrine signaling impact on preadipocyte differentiation

  • Vaughn, Mathew A. (Texas Tech University Department of Animal and Food Sciences) ;
  • Lancaster, Phillip A. (Oklahoma State University and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
  • Roden, Kelly C. (Texas Tech University Department of Animal and Food Sciences) ;
  • Sharman, Evin D. (Oklahoma State University and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
  • Krehbiel, Clinton R. (Oklahoma State University and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
  • Horn, Gerald W. (Oklahoma State University and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
  • Starkey, Jessica D. (Texas Tech University Department of Animal and Food Sciences)
  • Received : 2019.06.30
  • Accepted : 2019.08.28
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different stocker management programs on skeletal muscle development and growth characteristics, satellite cell (SC) activity in growing-finishing beef cattle as well as the effects of SC-conditioned media on preadipocyte gene expression and differentiation. Fall-weaned Angus steers (n = 76; $258{\pm}28kg$) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 stocker production systems: 1) grazing dormant native range (NR) supplemented with a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement ($1.02kg{\cdot}steer^{-1}{\cdot}d^{-1}$) followed by long-season summer grazing (CON, 0.46 kg/d); 2) grazing dormant NR supplemented with a ground corn and soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW followed by short-season summer grazing (CORN, 0.61 kg/d); 3) grazing winter wheat pasture (WP) at high stocking density (3.21 steers/ha) to achieve a moderate rate of gain (LGWP, 0.83 kg/d); and 4) grazing winter WP at low stocking density (0.99 steers/ha) to achieve a high rate of gain (HGWP, 1.29 kg/d). At the end of the stocker (intermediate harvest, IH) and finishing (final harvest, FH) phases, 4 steers / treatment were harvested and longissimus muscles (LM) sampled for cryohistological immunofluorescence analysis and SC culture assays. At IH, WP steers had greater LM fiber cross-sectional area than NR steers; however, at FH, the opposite was observed (p < 0.0001). At IH, CORN steers had the lowest Myf-5+:Pax7+ SC density (p = 0.020), while LGWP steers had the most Pax7+ SC (p = 0.043). At FH, CON steers had the highest LM capillary density (p = 0.003) and their cultured SC differentiated more readily than all other treatments (p = 0.017). At FH, Pax7 mRNA was more abundant in 14 d-old SC cultures from HGWP cattle (p = 0.03). Preadipocytes exposed to culture media from proliferating SC cultures from WP cattle isolated at FH had more $PPAR{\gamma}$ (p = 0.037) and less FABP4 (p = 0.030) mRNA expression compared with NR cattle. These data suggest that different stocker management strategies can impact skeletal muscle growth, SC function, and potentially impact marbling development in growing-finishing beef cattle.

Keywords

Beef stocker cattle;Dormant native range;Marbling development;Satellite cell activity;Skeletal muscle growth;Winter wheat pasture

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