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Natural and synthetic pathogen associated molecular patterns modulate galectin expression in cow blood

  • Asiamah, Emmanuel Kwaku (Department of Agriculture-Animal Science, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff) ;
  • Ekwemalor, Kingsley (Department of Animal Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University) ;
  • Adjei-Fremah, Sarah (Department of Biology, North Carolina A&T State University) ;
  • Osei, Bertha (Functional and Chemical Genomics, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation) ;
  • Newman, Robert (Department of Biology, North Carolina A&T State University) ;
  • Worku, Mulumebet (Department of Animal Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University)
  • Received : 2019.01.23
  • Accepted : 2019.09.05
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

Pathogen-associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) are highly conserved structural motifs that are recognized by Pathogen Recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate immune responses. Infection by these pathogens and the immune response to PAMPS such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Peptidoglycan (PGN), bacterial oligodeoxynucleotides [CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 2006 (CpG ODN2006) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 2216 (CpG ODN2216)], and viral RNA Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid (Poly I:C), are associated with infectious and metabolic diseases in animals impacting health and production. It is established that PAMPs mediate the production of cytokines by binding to PRRs such as Toll-like receptors (TLR) on immune cells. Galectins (Gal) are carbohydrate-binding proteins that when expressed play essential roles in the resolution of infectious and metabolic diseases. Thus it is important to determine if the expression of galectin gene (LGALS) and Gal secretion in blood are affected by exposure to LPS and PGN, PolyI:C and bacterial CpG ODNs. LPS increased transcription of LGALS4 and 12 (2.5 and 2.02 folds respectively) and decreased secretion of Gal 4 (p < 0.05). PGN increased transcription of LGALS-1, -2, -3, -4, -7, and -12 (3.0, 2.3, 2.0, 4.1, 3.3, and 2.4 folds respectively) and secretion of Gal-8 and Gal-9 (p < 0.05). Poly I:C tended to increase the transcription of LGALS1, LGALS4, and LGALS8 (1.78, 1.88, and 1.73 folds respectively). Secretion of Gal-1, -3, -8 and nine were significantly increased in treated samples compared to control (p < 0.05). CpG ODN2006 did not cause any significant fold changes in LGALS transcription (FC < 2) but increased secretion of Gal-1, and-3 (p < 0.05) in plasma compared to control. Gal-4 was however reduced in plasma (p < 0.05). CpG ODN2216 increased transcription of LGALS1 and LGALS3 (3.8 and 1.6 folds respectively), but reduced LGALS2, LGALS4, LGALS7, and LGALS12 (-1.9, -2.0, -2.0 and; -2.7 folds respectively). Secretion of Gal-2 and -3 in plasma was increased compared to control (p < 0.05). Gal-4 secretion was reduced in plasma (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that PAMPs differentially modulate galectin transcription and translation of galectins in cow blood.

Keywords

PAMPs;Galectins;Cow;Disease

Acknowledgement

Grant : The Role of Galectins in Periparturient Ruminants

Supported by : National Institute of Food and Agriculture

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