Growth of Candida albicans Biofilm is Inhibited by Salvia miltiorrhiza

단삼에 의한 Candida albicans 바이오필름 발달의 억제

  • Lee, Heung-Shick (Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Younhee (Department of Korean Medicine, Semyung University)
  • 이흥식 (고려대학교 생명정보공학과) ;
  • 김연희 (세명대학교 한의학과)
  • Received : 2019.01.18
  • Accepted : 2019.02.26
  • Published : 2019.09.28


Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections. Candidiasis is often related to antifungal resistance because the pathogen has the ability to form biofilms. In a previous study, we found that the Salvia miltiorriza ethanol extract demonstrated anticandidal activity by altering membrane permeability and inhibiting the cell wall synthesis in C. albicans. Our results here demonstrate that $78{\mu}g/ml$ of the S. miltiorriza extract significantly diminished the early stage biofilms formed by 10 clinical C. albicans isolates by 51.3%; this was analyzed by 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt (XTT) reduction assay. The effect of the S. miltiorrhiza extract on the adhesion of C. albicans cells to polystyrene plates and germ tube formation was examined via microscopic investigation. Although the density of the adhered cells was remarkably reduced up on incubation with $39{\mu}g/ml$ S. miltiorrhiza extract, germ tube formation by C. albicans was rarely affected. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the S. miltiorrhiza extract downregulated the expression of C. albicans hypha-specific genes, EAP1 by 34.7% (p < 0.001), ALS1 by 45.0% (p < 0.001), ALS3 by 48.1% (p < 0.001), and ECE1 by 21.3% (p = 0.006), respectively. Our data suggest that the S. miltiorrhiza ethanol extract significantly inhibited the early stage of biofilm formation by C. albicans by interfering with cell adhesion, by downregulating EAP1, ALS1 and ALS3, and presumably by modifying the cell wall and membrane structure.


Antifungal;biofilm;Candida albicans;hypha-specific gene;Salvia miltiorrhiza


Supported by : Semyung University


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