DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Some Properties and Microbial Community Changes of Gul (Oyster) Jeotgal during Fermentation

  • Kim, Jeong A (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Yao, Zhuang (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Jin (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong Hwan (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2019.05.03
  • Accepted : 2019.06.11
  • Published : 2019.09.28

Abstract

Gul jeotgals (GJs) were prepared using solar salt aged for 3 years. One sample was fermented using starters, such as Bacillus subtilis JS2 and Tetragenococcus halophilus BS2-36 (each $10^6CFU/g$), and another sample was fermented without starters for 49 days at $10^{\circ}C$. Initial counts of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in non-starter GJ were found to be $3.20{\times}10^2$ and $7.67{\times}10^1CFU/g$ on day 0, and increased to $1.37{\times}10^3$ and $1.64{\times}10^6CFU/g$ on day 49. Those of starter GJ were found to be $2.10{\times}10^5$ and $3.30{\times}10^7CFU/g$ on day 49, indicating the growth of starters. The pH values of GJ were $5.93{\pm}0.01$ (non-starter) and $5.92{\pm}0.01$ (starter) on day 0 and decreased to $5.78{\pm}0.01$ (non-starter) and $5.75{\pm}0.01$ (starter) on day 49. Amino-type nitrogen (ANN) production increased continuously during fermentation, and $407.19{\pm}15.85$ (non-starter) and $398.04{\pm}13.73$ (starter) mg% on day 49. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were constructed from total DNA extracted from non-starter GJ on days 7, 21, and 42. Nucleotide sequences of Escherichia coli transformants harboring recombinant pGEM-T easy plasmid containing 16S rRNA gene inserts from different bacterial species were analyzed using BLAST. Uncultured bacterium was the most dominant group and Gram - bacteria such as Acidovorax sp., Afipia sp., and Variovorax sp. were the second dominant group. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (day 7), Bacillus velezensis (day 21 and 42), and Bacillus subtilis (day 42) were observed, but no lactic acid bacteria were detected. Acidovorax and Variovorax species might play some role in GJ fermentation. Further studies on these bacteria are necessary.

Keywords

Gul jeotgal;Tetragenococcus halophilus;Bacillus subtilis;16S rRNA clone library

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Mokpo National University

References

  1. Koo OK, Lee SJ, Chung KR, Jang DJ, Yang HJ, Kwon DY. 2016. Korean traditional fermented fish products: jeotgal. J. Ethn. Foods 3: 107-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2016.06.004
  2. Kim CY, Pyeun JH, Nam TJ. 1988. Decomposition of glycogen and protein in pickled oyster during fermentation with salt. Bull. Korean Fish. Soc. 14: 66-71.
  3. Sung NJ. 1978. Degradation of nucleotides and their related compounds during the fermentation of oyster. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 7: 1-6.
  4. Hiau CY, Chai T. 1990. Characterization of oyster shucking liquid wastes and their utilization as oyster soup. J. Food Sci. 55: 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06767.x
  5. Kang KT, Heu MS, Kim JS. 2007. Development of spaghetti sauce with oyster. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 36: 93-99. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.1.093
  6. Kim JA, Yao Z, Kim HJ, Kim JH. 2018. Properties of gul jeotgal (Oyster Jeotgal) prepared with different types of salt and Bacillus subtilis JS2 as starter. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. 46: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4014/mbl.1711.11002
  7. Shim JM, Lee KW, Yao Z, Kim JA, Kim HJ, Kim JH. 2017. Microbial communities and physicochemical properties of myeolchi jeotgal (anchovy jeotgal) prepared with different types of salts. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 1744-1752. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1702.02027
  8. Yao Z, Liu X, Shim JM, Lee KW, Kim HJ, Kim JH. 2017. Properties of a fibrinolytic enzyme secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RSB34, isolated from doenjang. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 9-18. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1608.08034
  9. Heo OS, Oh SH, Shin HS, Kim MR. 2005. Mineral and heavy metal contents of salt and salted-fermented shrimp. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 37: 519-524.
  10. Kim DW, Kim BM, Lee HJ, Jang GJ, Song SH, Lee JI, et al. 2017. Effects of different salt treatments on the fermentation metabolites and bacterial profiles of kimchi. J. Food Sci. 82: 1124-1131. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13713
  11. Gottschalk G. 1986. Bacterial metabolism. pp. 214-224. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
  12. Graudal N, Jurgens G. 2018. Conflicting evidence on health effects associated with salt reduction calls for a redesign of the salt dietary guidelines. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 61: 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2018.04.008
  13. Kang YM, Chung SK, Paik HD, Cho SH. 2001. Changes in physicochemical component of soy sauce during fermentation from anchovy sauce. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30: 888-893.
  14. Hayaloglu AA, Guven M, Fox PF, McSweeney PLH. 2005. Influence of starters on chemical, biochemical, and sensory changes in Turkish white-brined cheese during ripening. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 3460-3474. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73030-7
  15. Lee KD, Choi CR, Cho JY, Kim HL, Ham KS. 2008. Physicochemical and sensory properties of salt-fermented shrimp prepared with various salts. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 53-59. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.1.53
  16. Satola B, Wubbeler JH, Steinbuchel A. 2013. Metabolic characteristics of the species Variovorax paradoxus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97: 541-560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4585-z
  17. Robertson AW, McCarville NG, Maclntyre LW, Correa H, Haltili B, marchbank DH, et al. 2018. Isolation of imaqobactin, an amphiphilic siderophore from the Arctic marine bacterium Variovorax Species RKJM285. J. Nat. Prod. 81: 858-865. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00943
  18. Han JI, Cho HK, Lee SW, Orwin PM, Kim J, LaRoe SL, et al. 2011. Complete genome sequence of the metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting endophyte Variovorax paradoxus S110. J. Bacteriol. 193: 1183-1190. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00925-10
  19. Boycheva SS, Pichler FB, Heijstra BD, Lau KEM, Turner SJ. 2015. The genetic toolbox for Acidovorax temperans. J. Microbiol. Methods 115: 129-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2015.06.006
  20. Cho MS, Jin YJ, Kang BK, Park YK, Kim CK, Park DS. 2018. Understanding the ontogeny and succession of Bacillus velezensis and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis by focusing on kimchi fermentation. Sci. Rep. 8: 7045. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25514-5
  21. Lee HJ, Chun BH, Jeon HH, Kim YB, Lee SH. 2017. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis YJ11-1-4, a strain with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, isolated from traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. Genome Announc. 5: e01352-17.
  22. Lee JM, Kim YR, Kim JK, Jeong GT, Ha JC, Kong IS. 2015. Characterization of salt-tolerant ${\beta}$-glucosidase with increased thermostability under high salinity conditions from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Bioproc. Biosyst. Eng. 38: 1335-1346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-015-1375-x
  23. Fukui Y, Yoshida M, Shozen KI, Funatsu Y, Takano T, Oikawa H, et al. 2012. Bacterial communities in fish sauce mash using culturedependent and -independent methoods. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 58: 273-281. https://doi.org/10.2323/jgam.58.273
  24. Kim MS, Park EJ. 2014. Bacterial communities of traditional salted and fermented seafoods from Jeju island of Korea using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. J. Food Sci. 79: M927-M934. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12431
  25. Song EJ, Lee ES, Park SL, Choi HJ, Roh SW, Nam YD. 2018. Bacterial community analysis in three types of the fermented seafood, Jeotgal, produced in south Korea. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 82: 1444-1454. https://doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2018.1469395
  26. Maropola MK, Ramond JB, Trindade M. 2015. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench). J. Microbiol. Methods 112: 104-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2015.03.012