DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Clinical Characteristics and Gustatory Profiles in Patients with Subjective Taste Complaints

  • Kim, Seo-Yeong (Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Byun, Jin-Seok (Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jung, Jae-Kwang (Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Choi, Jae-Kap (Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2019.08.14
  • Accepted : 2019.08.26
  • Published : 2019.09.30

Abstract

Purpose: Patients with taste complaints presenting with various abnormal perceptions and alterations in gustatory function are often encountered in dental clinics. Since taste perception is thought to be influenced by numerous factors including neurological and psychological factors, the gustatory profiles of patients complaining of taste abnormalities should be very different. However, the gustatory profiles based on the clinical subtypes of taste complaints have not been fully studied. This study aimed to better understand the gustatory profiles depending on the clinical subtypes of taste complaints. Methods: Clinical data from 169 patients with complaints of altered taste were retrospectively collected to analyse their clinical and gustatory profiles. These complaints were subdivided into hypergeusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia for each taste quality according to the clinical types of these complaints. The gustatory profiles were then established by analysing the detection and recognition thresholds for each taste quality depending on the clinical subtypes of taste complaints. Results: Clinical analysis revealed that patients with taste complaints had widely diverse clinical profiles. There were significant differences between males and females with taste complaints in the prevalence rates of symptoms like dry mouth, tongue coating, and burning sensation. While hypogeusia (76.3%) was the most frequent type of taste complaint, it was revealed that the taste thresholds were not always consistent with the patient's description of gustatory symptoms. Conclusions: Patients with taste complaints exhibited diverse clinical profiles with sex differences. Considering the diversity of the taste complaints, the quantitative gustatory testing methods can be valuable to differentially evaluate the presence and intensity of altered taste in patients with these complaints.

Keywords

Clinical study;Epidemiology;Taste disorder;Taste threshold

References

  1. Wardle J, Cooke LJ. One man's meat is another man's poison. Science & Society series on food and science. EMBO Rep 2010;11:816-821. https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2010.161
  2. Maheswaran T, Abikshyeet P, Sitra G, Gokulanathan S, Vaithiyanadane V, Jeelani S. Gustatory dysfunction. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014;6(Suppl 1):S30-S33. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.137257
  3. Hamada N, Endo S, Tomita H. Characteristics of 2278 patients visiting the Nihon University Hospital Taste Clinic over a 10-year period with special reference to age and sex distributions. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2002;(546):7-15.
  4. Ship JA, Chavez EM. Special senses: disorders of taste and smell. In: Silverman S, Eversole LR, Truelove EL, eds. Essentials of oral medicine. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc.; 2001. pp. 279-280.
  5. Hunt JD, Reiter ER, Costanzo RM. Etiology of subjective taste loss. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019;9:409-412. https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22263
  6. Hoffman HJ, Ishii EK, MacTurk RH. Age-related changes in the prevalence of smell/taste problems among the United States adult population. Results of the 1994 disability supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998;855:716-722. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb10650.x
  7. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Perceived taste disturbance in adults: prevalence and association with oral and psychological factors and medication. Clin Oral Investig 2002;6:145-149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-002-0169-0
  8. Welge-Lussen A, Dorig P, Wolfensberger M, Krone F, Hummel T. A study about the frequency of taste disorders. J Neurol 2011;258:386-392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-010-5763-5
  9. Rawal S, Hoffman HJ, Bainbridge KE, Huedo-Medina TB, Duffy VB. Prevalence and risk factors of self-reported smell and taste alterations: results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Chem Senses 2016;41:69-76. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjv057
  10. Deems DA, Doty RL, Settle RG, et al. Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;117:519-528. https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1991.01870170065015
  11. Fark T, Hummel C, Hahner A, Nin T, Hummel T. Characteristics of taste disorders. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013;270:1855-1860. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-012-2310-2
  12. Naik C, Claussen CF. Qualitative and quantitative representation of taste disturbances: how we do it by pentagon chart. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010;62:376-380. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-010-0060-2
  13. Yamauchi Y, Endo S, Sakai F, Yoshimura I. A new whole-mouth gustatory test procedure. 1. Thresholds and principal components analysis in healthy men and women. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2002;(546):39-48.
  14. Allis TJ, Leopold DA. Smell and taste disorders. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2012;20:93-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2011.10.011
  15. Soter A, Kim J, Jackman A, Tourbier I, Kaul A, Doty RL. Accuracy of self-report in detecting taste dysfunction. Laryngoscope 2008;118:611-617. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLG.0b013e318161e53a
  16. Malaty J, Malaty IA. Smell and taste disorders in primary care. Am Fam Physician 2013;88:852-859.
  17. Boesveldt S, Lindau ST, McClintock MK, Hummel T, Lundstrom JN. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in older adults: a national probability study. Rhinology 2011;49:324-330.
  18. Liu G, Zong G, Doty RL, Sun Q. Prevalence and risk factors of taste and smell impairment in a nationwide representative sample of the US population: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2016;6:e013246. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013246
  19. Su N, Ching V, Grushka M. Taste disorders: a review. J Can Dent Assoc 2013;79:d86.
  20. Seiberling KA, Conley DB. Aging and olfactory and taste function. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004;37:1209-1228, vii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otc.2004.06.006
  21. Imoscopi A, Inelmen EM, Sergi G, Miotto F, Manzato E. Taste loss in the elderly: epidemiology, causes and consequences. Aging Clin Exp Res 2012;24:570-579.
  22. Doty RL, Shah M, Bromley SM. Drug-induced taste disorders. Drug Saf 2008;31:199-215. https://doi.org/10.2165/00002018-200831030-00002
  23. Yang L, Xie G, Fan Q, Xie J. Activation of the hedgehog-signaling pathway in human cancer and the clinical implications. Oncogene 2010;29:469-481. https://doi.org/10.1038/onc.2009.392
  24. Naik BS, Shetty N, Maben EV. Drug-induced taste disorders. Eur J Intern Med 2010;21:240-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2010.01.017
  25. Spielman AI. Chemosensory function and dysfunction. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998;9:267-291. https://doi.org/10.1177/10454411980090030201
  26. Wrobel BB, Leopold DA. Clinical assessment of patients with smell and taste disorders. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004;37:1127-1142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otc.2004.06.010
  27. Doty RL. Gustation. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2012;3:29-46. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.156
  28. Stevenson RJ, Prescott J, Boakes RA. Confusing tastes and smells: how odours can influence the perception of sweet and sour tastes. Chem Senses 1999;24:627-635. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/24.6.627
  29. Guggenheimer J, Moore PA. Xerostomia: etiology, recognition and treatment. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:61-69; quiz 118-119. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0018
  30. Ohara Y, Hirano H, Yoshida H, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation among communitydwelling older people in Japan. Gerodontology 2016;33:20-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/ger.12101
  31. Omor RA, Arabeyat MA, Hiasat AN, Ajarmeh MS, Abu Fanas HH. Prevalence and factors related to tongue coating among a sample of Jordanian royal medical services dental outpatients. JRMS 2015;22:35-40. https://doi.org/10.12816/0011363
  32. Aravindhan R, Vidyalakshmi S, Kumar MS, Satheesh C, Balasubramanium AM, Prasad VS. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014;6(Suppl 1):S21-S25. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.137255
  33. Feller L, Fourie J, Bouckaert M, Khammissa RAG, Ballyram R, Lemmer J. Burning mouth syndrome: aetiopathogenesis and principles of management. Pain Res Manag 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/1926269.
  34. Ambaldhage VK, Puttabuddi JH, Nunsavath PN, Tummuru YR. Taste disorders: a review. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26:69-76. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-1363.141864
  35. Ellegard EK, Hay KD, Morton RP. Is electrogustometry useful for screening abnormalities of taste? J Laryngol Otol 2007;121:1161-1164. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022215107000862
  36. Landis BN, Welge-Luessen A, Bramerson A, et al. “Taste Strips” - a rapid, lateralized, gustatory bedside identification test based on impregnated filter papers. J Neurol 2009;256:242-248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-009-0088-y
  37. Lee JW, Shin SH, Rhyu MR, Kim JY, Ye MK. The effect of aging on taste thresholds in Korean. Korean J Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2013;56:286-290.
  38. Son HJ, Lee JW, Shin SH, Rhyu MR, Kim JY, Ye MK. Differences in taste thresholds according to sex and age groups in Korean. Korean J Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2014;57:692-697.
  39. Katz DB, Nicolelis MA, Simon SA. Gustatory processing is dynamic and distributed. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2002;12:448-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(02)00341-0
  40. Simon SA, de Araujo IE, Stapleton JR, Nicolelis MA. Multisensory processing of gustatory stimuli. Chemosens Percept 2008;1:95-102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12078-008-9014-4
  41. Osaki T, Ohshima M, Tomita Y, Matsugi N, Nomura Y. Clinical and physiological investigations in patients with taste abnormality. J Oral Pathol Med 1996;25:38-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.1996.tb01221.x