A Tag Proximity Information Acquisition Scheme for RFID Yoking Proof

RFID 요킹증명을 위한 인접태그 정보 획득 기법

  • 함형민 (배재대학교 사이버보안학과)
  • Received : 2019.08.01
  • Accepted : 2019.08.25
  • Published : 2019.09.28


RFID yoking proof proves that a pair of tags is scanned at the same time. Since the tags scanned simultaneously by a single reader are adjacent to each other, the yoking proof is used in applications that need to check the physical proximity of tagged objects. Most of the yoking proof schemes require pre-knowledge on adjacent tags. If an error occurs in the process of collecting information about adjacent tags, all subsequent proofs will fail verification. However, there is no research that suggests specific methods for obtaining information about adjacent tags. In this study, I propose a tag proximity information acquisition scheme for a yoking proof. The proposed method consists of two steps: scanning area determination and scanning area verification. In the first step, the size and position of the area to scan tags is determined in consideration of position and transmission range of the tags. In the next step, whether tag scanning is performed within the scanning area or not is verified through reference tags of the fixed position. In analysis, I show that the determined scanning area assures acquisition of adjacent tag information and the scanning area verification detects deformation and deviation of the scanning area.


  1. A. Juels, "Yoking proofs for RFID tags," Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Annual Conference on Computing and Communication Workshops, pp.138-143, 2008.
  2. J. Saito and K. Sakurai, "Grouping proof for RFID tags," Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Vol.2, pp.621-624, 2005.
  3. S. Piramuthu, "On existence proofs for multiple RFID tags," Proceeding of ACS/IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Services, pp.317-320, 2005.
  4. L. Bolotnyy and G. Robins, "Generalized yoking proofs for a group of RFID tags," Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems Workshops, pp.1-4, 2006.
  5. P. Peris Lopez, J. C. Hernandez Castro, J. M. Estevez Tapiador, and A. Ribagorda, "Solving the simultaneous scanning problem anonymously: clumping proofs for RFID tags," Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Security, Privacy and Trust in Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, pp.55-60, 2007.
  6. J. S. Cho, S. S. Yeo, S. C. Hwang, S. Y. Rhee, and S. K. Kim, "Enhanced yoking proof protocols for RFID tags and tag groups," Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, WAINA08, pp.1591-1596, 2008.
  7. Y. Lien, X. Leng, K. Mayes, and J. Chiu, "Reading order independent grouping proof for RFID tags," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, pp.128-136, IEEE, 2008.
  8. D. Trcek, "Wireless sensors grouping proofs for medical care and ambient assisted-living deployment," Sensors, Vol.16, No.1, pp.33, 2016.
  9. M. Burmester, B. Medeiros, and R. Motta, "Provably secure grouping proofs for RFID tags," Proceedings of the 8th IFIP international conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications, pp.176-190, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
  10. N. Lo and K. Yeh, "Anonymous coexistence proofs for RFID tags," J. Inf. Syst. Edu. Vol.26, No.4, pp.1213-1230, 2010.
  11. P. Peris Lopez, A. Orfila, J. C. Hernandez Castro, Van der Lubbe, and C. A. Jan, "Flaws on RFID grouping-proofs: Guidelines for future sound," J. Netw. Comput. Appl. Vol.34, No.3, pp.833-845, 2011.
  12. C. Ma, J. Lin, Y. Wang, and M. Shang, "Offline RFID grouping proofs with trusted timestamps," Proceedings of the IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), pp.674-681, 2012.
  13. C. L. Chen, C. Y. Wu, F. Y. Leu, and Y. L. Huang, "Using RFID yoking proof to design a supply-chain applications for customs check," IT CoNvergence PRActice (INPRA), Vol.1, No.2, pp.34-53, 2013.
  14. M. H. Yang, J. N. Luo, and Y. Lu, "A novel multi-layered RFID tagged cargo integrity assurance scheme," Sensors, Vol.15, No.10, pp.27087-27115, 2015.
  15. S. Cheng, V. Varadharajan, Y. Mu, and W. Susilo, "An efficient and provably secure RFID grouping proof protocol," In Proceedings of the Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference (ACSW '17), pp.1-7, 2017.
  16. S. Rostampour, N. Bagheri, M. Hosseinzadeh, and A. Khademzadeh, "An authenticated encryption based grouping proof protocol for RFID systems," Security and Communication Networks, Vol.9, No.18, pp.5581-5590, 2017.
  17. Z. Zhou, P. Liu, Q. Liu, and G. Wang, "An anonymous offline RFID grouping-proof protocol," Future Internet, Vol.10, No.1, pp.1-15, 2018.