Risk factors, depression, quality of life and relevance of Korean adults

  • Ahn, Si-Nae (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Cheongju University)
  • Received : 2019.06.17
  • Accepted : 2019.06.27
  • Published : 2019.09.30


This study aimed that certain risk factors are linked to the risk of developing depression and decreasing quality of life. This study was implemented using data from the 6th and 7th Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The National Health and Nutrition Survey consist of health surveys, screenings, and nutrition surveys. Among the risk factors, data on adult diseases such as depression, hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, and macular degeneration were used. In total, 12,768 adults over 20 years of age were selected, of whom 520 were diagnosed with depression. The most common risk factors in adults over 20 years of age were hypertension, arthritis, cataract, diabetes, depression, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. Their risk factors were analyzed if these were associated with depression and quality of life. The results revealed that hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, and macular degeneration were predictors for the occurrence of depression in adults. The factors associated with the highest risk for depression were arthritis and glaucoma. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of certain factors on the quality of life; the factor associated with the greatest impact on quality of life was arthritis. This study verified that the aforementioned factors were related to the risk of developing depression and decreasing quality of life.


Adults;Depression;Risk Factors;Quality of Life


  1. World Health Organization. MhGAP Humanitarian Intervention Guide (mhGAP-HIG): Clinical of Mental Neurological and Substance Use Conditions in Humanitarian Emergencies, World Health Organization, 2015.
  2. A. Caspi, K. Sugden, T.E. Moffitt, A. Taylor, I.W. Craig, H. Harrington H, J. McClay, J. Mill, J. Martin, A. Braithwaite, and R. Poulton, "Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene," Science, Vol.301, No. 5631, pp. 386-9, July 2003. DOI:
  3. C.K. Park, and J.R. Lee, "Analysis of Factors Affecting the Change of Depression of Korean Adult Male and Female," The Journal of Health and Social Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 99-128, April 2011.
  4. Z. Li, Y. Li, L. Chen, P. Chen, and Y. Hu, "Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis," Medicine, 2015 Vol. 94, No. 31, pp. e1317, Aug 2015. DOI:
  5. Y. Wang, J.M. Lopez, S.C. Bolge, V.J. Zhu, and P.E. Stang, "Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012," BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 5, No. 16, pp. 88. April 2016. DOI:
  6. W.K. Kim, D. Shin, and W.O. Song, "Depression and Its Comorbid Conditions More Serious in Women than in Men in the United States," The Journal of Women's Health (Larchmt), Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 978-85, December 2015. DOI:
  7. A.M. Krebber, L.M. Buffart, G. Kleijn, I.C. Riepma, R. de Bree, C, R. Leemans, A. Becker, J. Brug, A. van Straten, P. Cuijpers, and I.M. Verdonck-de Leeuw, "Prevalence of depression in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments," Psychooncology, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 121-30, February 2014. DOI:
  8. P.F. Krabbe, M.E. Stouthard, M.L. Essink-Bot, and G.J. Bonsel, "The effect of adding a cognitive dimension to the EuroQol multiattribute health-status classification system," The Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 293-301, April 1999.
  9. J.H. Park, D.J. Kim, and S.J. Kim, "Is arthritis associated with suicidal ideation and quality of life?" Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 144-154, February 2019. DOI:
  10. K. Albrecht, A. Luque Ramos, F. Hoffmann, I. Redeker, and A. Zink, "High prevalence of diabetes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a questionnaire survey linked to claims data," Rheumatology (Oxford), Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 329-336, February 2018. DOI: https://doi.org10.1093/rheumatology/kex414.
  11. M. Kojima, T. Kojima, S. Suzuki, N. Takahashi, K. Funahashi, D. Kato, M. Hanabayashi, S. Hirabara, S. Asai, and N. Ishiguro, "Alexithymia, depression, inflammation, and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis," Arthritis Care & Research, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 679-86, May 2014. DOI:
  12. H. Wang, H.P. Sun, P. Wang, Y. Xu, and C.W. Pan, "Cataract and Depressive Symptoms among Older Chinese Adults," Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 93, No.12, pp. 1479-1484, December 2016.
  13. A. Palagyi, K. Rogers, L. Meuleaners, P. McCluskey, A. White, J. Q. Ng, N. Morlet, and L. Keay, "Depressive symptoms in older adults awaiting cataract surgery," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology,Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 789-796, December 2016. DOI:
  14. L.B. Meuleners, D. Hendrie, M.L. Fraser, J.Q. Ng, and N. Morlet, "The impact of first eye cataract surgery on mental health contacts for depression and/or anxiety: a population-based study using linked data," Acta Ophthalmologica ,Vol. 91, No. 6, pp. e445-9, September 2013. DOI: