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The ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES IN EFFECTIVE E-RECRUITMEN; A STUDY OF TELECOM SECTOR IN CONTEXT OF PAKISTAN

  • Waheed, Abdul (Management Science & Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University) ;
  • Xiaoming, Miao (Management Science & Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University) ;
  • Waheed, Salma (School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University) ;
  • Ahmad, Naveed (Management Science & Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University)
  • Received : 2018.10.02
  • Accepted : 2019.02.22
  • Published : 2019.08.31

Abstract

In cut throat competition, organizations all over the world try to utilize the immense opportunities the Internet has to offer in almost all of their operations. Today, Social networking sites (SNSs) provide utilities designed to help companies to recruit right personnel. Considering the implication of social media for recruitment at infancy stage in Pakistan and lack of studies related to it, this study aims to investigate the role of different SNSs qualities (Easily navigate, Secure process, Eminence Proficiency, Candidate's Attraction and Network Expedition) in effective E-recruitment (EER). Data were collected through structured questionnaire from employees and managers of major telecom companies of Pakistan. Finally, the result of 355 returned and valid questionnaire with 55% response rate show that the relationship between SNSs qualities and EER is significant. Moreover, results also prove that EER is better than the tradition recruitment and a SNSs comparison show that Facebook is more effective than LinkedIn for EER. The results of this study will help Pakistani companies to develop a successful e-HRM and EER strategy in the current scenario.

1. Introduction

Moving toward the second decade of the 21st century, the use of the Internet has become an integrated and vital tool in today’s business world. After SNSs were first created in 1997, many changes have occurred. From being only web-based services that allowed users tosimply create a profile, share connections with others, and view their profiles and connections, they emerged to multipurpose individual and business tools [1]. Every day more and morecompanies enter the digital world by creating their own Facebook page, LinkedIn profile, or a Twitter account. They all have a common goal: to reach as many individuals as possible and make their company more recognizable among the many available. Realistically, to keep up with the developments and intense competition, organizations all over the world try to utilize the immense opportunities the Internet has to offer in almost all of their operations. This isindeed true when it comes to the function of human resource management, and especially when exploring contemporary practices in relation to recruitment and selection. Today, SNSsprovide utilities designed to help companies locate and attract applicants while they also enable employers to run instant background checks. However, strangely enough, many corporations avoid the use of social media and fail to take advantage of the opportunities offered [2].

Trying to overcome the barriers imposed by the current financial crisis and constantincreasing unemployment rates [3] many people move away from using traditional recruitment channels (i.e., local bureaus, newspapers, radio, television, etc.) and turn to alternative mediums to search for employment opportunities. Today, about one in every sixindividuals maintain a social network profile on Facebook, while one in every 28 own Linked In accounts [4, 5]. There are many reasons for this recent trend, commonly referred to as e-recruitment [6]. Moreover, with proper preparation and the right procedures in place, SNSs enable companies to run their recruitment strategies at a lower cost [7] and to devotemuch less time in information processing[7-9], hence making the process more efficient. Despite all the positive outcomes generated through e-recruitment. However, some companies are still hesitant to be involved and adapt to this relatively new practice. Lack of expertise, costs involved, unfamiliarity, and unwillingness to depart from traditional approaches areamong the reasons for reluctance. Beyond the aforementioned, however, one important aspectseems to hold back many organizations from pursuing the ‘‘e-route.’’ Social profile screeningrecently generated great controversy regarding its legality as only a hairline segregatesinformation between public and private and crossing it could result in lawsuits. Related to this argument, if network screening is partially illegal and since no restrictions exist to prevent it, then is there any ethical dilemma? Also, inevitably, information screening affects employers & rsquo;decision to accept or reject an applicant.

The main aim of this study is to classify that either different practices of SNSs (Linked in and Facebook) leads to effective E-Recruitment in Pakistan or not. Finders suggested that most of the associations have realized the significance of E-Recruitment in Pakistan and have established to take it into practice. The entrance of internet in Pakistan has survived since the early 1990’s. The job seekers in Karachi (the most populated city) are focal point on online basis comprehensively to attain high-quality job opportunities. The effortless entrance of internet in universities and offices has facilitated the individual to apply online and submittheir resume. Utilization of internet for multiple tasks in multi-national organizations have entirely modified the mind-sets of the Pakistani employers. E-Recruitment is used frequently with the purpose to sustain high level of effectiveness and productivity. Few associations arenot in kindness of using the online recruitment expertise due to ancient school of thoughts, civilizing peculiarities and other restrictions [10]. Therefore, this study will help Pakistanicompanies to develop a successful e-HRM strategy in the current scenario.

2. Theoretical Background

2.1 Conventional Recruitment vs. E-Recruitment

Word Recruitment is defined as a method of magnetizing potential employees and motivating them for applying job in an organization [11]. Difference between conventional Recruitmentand E-recruitment is very wide. Conventional recruitment considers as “traditionally recruitemployees through newspaper advertisements, trade fairs, and job boards”[12] and E-recruitment define as online sources like job boards, online recruitment sites, and SNSs that proceed as a substitute option [13] described E-Recruitment process occupied companies forrecruit emerging talent online.

Alf [12] argued that traditional ways of recruitment (e.g. newspaper advertisements, trade fairs, job boards) will not be sufficient, and` new looms will be needed. Du Plessis and Frederick[14] discussed conventional way of recruiting process must be needed to change into e-recruiting process. It offers possibilities to reduce recruitment costs and reach economies of scale. Jobs and talents are becoming more international all the time. Taking account those facts E-Recruitment is effective [15] and financial crises also twist companies towards online Recruitment to look for new opportunities of international recruitment [3]. Researchersinvestigated those organizations that used e-recruitment achieved lower recruiting costs, roundabout 87% of their recruiting costs lower than traditional recruitment [16, 17].

2.2 Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and Effective E-Recruitment (EER)

E-Recruitment has comprehended the authority of online SNSs and its penetration of worldwide work. In 2011 E-Recruiting demonstrated that 89% of companies hiring would doso by way of online SNSs a survey exploit of [18]. SNSs such as Facebook and LinkedIn have expanded status in the current years. As long ago as 2010 till 2017, sprawling businesses haverequired the login documentations for potential employees for prominent SNSs to entirebackground confirms before hiring.

The application of SNSs in Pakistan is at infancy stage. Along the wide applicability of Facebook in business sector, it was recognized that mainly of the business are not attentive of Linked In [19]. Some businesses are attentive of the social network but they do not integrate itin their recruitment and selection process. There is a proportion of business who are using Linked In for placement of occupation ads, probable job openings etc. In small, there is a combination of equally conservative and current consumers of expertise in the business of Karachi nowadays [10].A survey by The News Tribe (2012) exposes that Facebook and Twitter is what Pakistanis passionate for! Other SNSs together with Google+, LinkedIn and Pinterest have so far not increased impetus in the country which is considered as one of the greatest rising sites when it comes to Internet exploit.

2.3 SNSs Qualities

Abel [20] defined five qualities of SNSs in his study. However, simpler version also has been presented by this study to clarify the views about this study. Qualities of SNSs are considered as an indicator for a satisfactory website and can be adapted to indicators of SNSs.

2.3.1 Easily Navigate

Tong, et al. [21] defined “Ease of navigation” is a procedure to specify functions of a website which can be easy for searcher what he wants to find without any hesitation. A SNS basically regards as an excellent research engine using easily and faster back and forth through the pages [21].

2.3.2 Secure Process

As SNSs consider as a trustworthy secure process in which the term Security/privacy, is regarded as an important element [22]. Moreover, the fact that millions of users are on the sesites leads to the assumption that certain amount of trust is involved. Dwyer, et al. [23] foundout that Facebook users have a greater amount of trust and share more information. But what is about companies? Do they trust Social Networking Sites? Because security/privacy is animportant issue in the area of information technology, it is taken into consideration in this study. Security/privacy involves the degree to which the user believes that the site is safe fromintrusion and that personal information is protected [21].

2.3.3 Eminence Proficiency

The quality of spreading information is one of the art of SNSs that go through the proficiency of manufacture and transports system. It is differentiated by transporting applicable, rationalized information and easy-to-understand information [17]. Lee and Kozar [17] stated in their article that, the higher the worth of the information proficiency, the higher the number of online purchasers will be. Submitting this to SNSs, the higher the Eminence proficiency ofinformation in SNSs, the higher will be the number of users.

2.3.4 Candidate’s Attraction

El Ouirdi, et al. [24] noted that social media sites seem to be captured attraction of employee in recruitment and selection process. Attractive sites connote towards informative offer highly popular, useful and gorgeous for candidates [25]. recruitment system obliges such sites for jobhiring, having more considerations of choice superlative candidate for their organization. On the other hand, famous and attractive SNSs for Recruitment lead to be distinguished among their revivals. In this study, attraction of sites among candidate is deliberated by cataloged users of the SNSs and the status of these sites. Status of the site is calculated by an evaluation of the respondent about the famous of the site among the applicants and whether the site is of ten argued in the media or not.

2.3.5 Network Expedition

Networking Expedition is the scope of the network of social involvements and peopleparticipation that is projected to be concerned in this network. Referred to the study, the Network Expedition is defined as the associations which individual have and the networkoutcome of the site. For businesses it might be significant that the SNS assurances a high levelof expensive associations and has a broad Network Expedition. In addition, a SNS makes iteasier to attain worldwide contacts (applicants) and therefore, guides to an augmented networking effect. The networking effect is the occurrence whereby a service becomes more expensive as extra people use it, thereby heartening ever-increasing numbers of adopters [26 ]. The use of SNSs has intensified enormously: LinkedIn, for example needed 16 months to expand its first million users, while the newest million came only within eight days [27].


2.4 Effective E-recruitment (EER)

Different indicators making EER effective are explored through comprehensive literaturereview and it includes low cost, get more opportunity, reduced time, fast process, and target group direction as given below:

2.4.1 Low Cost

E-Recruitment can be low cost process for posting job and for searching candidates, approximately 90% lower than the costs used for conventional searching method [28 ]. Researchers investigated those organizations that used e-recruitment achieved lowerrecruiting costs, round about 87% of their recruiting costs lower than traditional recruitment [16, 17].

2.4.2 Get more Opportunity

E-recruitment process has been supporting for jobseekers worldwide. As, jobseekers have been turning into feasible targets for opportunity as recruiter’s dispute by SNS [29]. Scott [30]also analyzed Social networking websites on towards employment opportunities. Transaction of HRM recruitment towards SNS supplied qualified candidate [31] same as it opened a vitalopportunity for jobseekers to apply for job post that they want.

2.4.3 Reduced Time

Doherty [7] argued in his case study that social networking changed the face of traditional CV for recruitment as HR departments have been limited time, furthermore social recruitment has been in time enhancing the company’s recruitment brand. Perfect meaning of time reduction works for e-recruitment. One side, jobseekers just click the button to post their CV for job post, on the other hand, company recruit the best qualified candidate in time. Thus, E-recruitmentalso reduced the time-to-hire for facilitate online Jobseekers [32].

2.4.4 Fast Process

As the world is changing day by day, same as their business strategies are changing. Now, online recruiting is considered as faster and convenient process [33, 34]. More and morecandidates are posting their résumé for their better future however e-recruiting has become a fast-growing process for hiring employees [35]. So, it’s useful for companies thate-recruitment regards as “a faster posting of jobs, faster applicant response and a fasterprocessing of résumés” [36].

2.4.5 Target group direction

Doherty [7] argued that targeted group approach will be helpful for HR in e-recruitment tobuild constant and personalized relationship with candidates and it’s also will be beneficial to avoid happening because clear and specific targeting group will be required. For s prawling business expansion teams also will be considered qualified, high mind and pertinent candidatealthough they visit target job searcher regularly [28].

3. Proposed Relationships and Study Framework

SNSs have previously penetrated the recruitment scene and become an important theme in HR departments. The sites, business-oriented or social-oriented networking site, are illustrated by diverse qualities. The selected qualities of the site are: Easily navigate, Secure process, Eminence Proficiency, Candidate’s Attraction and Network Expedition. In this paper, the consequence of these qualities on Effective E-Recruitment is experienced. Scheming an Effective E-Recruitment process for magnetizing the best applicants represents a massive confront for institutes. As mentioned in above section, there are traits which make E-Recruitment Effective. The selected traits Low Cost, get more Opportunity, Reduced Time, Extremely Fast Process and Target Group Direction distinguish Effective E-Recruitment. Usually, very modest research has been accomplished on this topic as an entire. Thus, this study is revolutionary and helping to search an answer for the main research questions:&ld quo; E-Recruitment is efficient as compared to Conventional Recruitment in terms of ease ofaccessibility and rapidity of response.” “There is a strong relationship between Effective E-Recruitment and attributes of Social Networking Sites” and &ld quo; Maximum Telecommunication Vendor companies in Pakistan prefer E-Recruitment through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) such as Facebook over LinkedIn.”

E-Recruitment means online recruitment that is more favorable instead of Conventional recruitment which are linked with newspaper, job board etc. Conventional Recruitments are time consuming and costly work. Companies only highlighting any scrupulous area but in online jobs companies can bring possible candidates not from their own countries but out of countries. So, companies have got much profit from E-Recruitment.

H1: E-Recruitment is efficient as compared to Conventional Recruitment in terms of ease ofaccessibility and rapidity of response.

H2: Maximum Telecommunication Vendor companies in Pakistan prefer E-Recruitment through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) such as Facebook over LinkedIn.

H3: There is a strong relationship between Effective E-Recruitment (Low Cost, get more Opportunity, Reduced Time, Fast Process and Target Group Direction) and Social Networking Sites qualities (Easily navigate, Secure process, Eminence Proficiency, Candidate’s Attraction and Network Expedition). As H3 is based on proposed relationship between SNSs qualities and EER, therefore, it is represented through a relationship based structural model as shown in Fig. 1 . Moreover, to validate the SNSs qualities and EER, following research hypothesis areproposed:

SNSs Qualities

H4: A SNS with easy navigation is better for recruitment.

H5: A SNS with secure processes is better for recruitment.

H6: A SNS with eminence proficiency is better for recruitment.

H7: A SNS having more candidate’s attraction is better for recruitment.

H8: A SNS with network expedition is better for recruitment.

Effective E-recruitment (EER)

H9: E-recruitment with higher degree of effectiveness is measure by cost.

H10: E-recruitment with higher degree of effectiveness is measure by opportunity.

H11: E-recruitment with higher degree of effectiveness is measure by time.

H12: E-recruitment with higher degree of effectiveness is measure by speed.

H13: E-recruitment with higher degree of effectiveness is measured by target group direction. The final structured model with all conceptual relationship is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Conceptual framework 

4. Methodology

Qualitative and quantitative information was gathered to get a general and more in-depthinsight concerning this research. In general, the combination of a qualitative and a quantitativestudy as mixed-methods research enhances the reliability and validity of the research cumulatively [37]. Data was collected from the employees and HR Managers of the privatetelecom organizations. The details of the respondents are given in Table 1. A survey-based questionnaire was developed to get response via emails and the instrument which is used fordata collection is the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A semi-structured interview allows the interviewer or interviewee to respond in detail on certain aspects that could deviate from the original question and context [38]. The questionnaire wasself-constructed. A calculation and reporting of the Cronbach`s alpha coefficient is essential inorder to prove the internal consistency reliability for the Likert-type Scale comprised of 1: Strongly agree, 2: Agree, 3: Neutral, 4: Disagree, 5: Strongly Disagree [39]. All thequestionnaire instruments were prepared by the different experts working in differentorganizations. All experts were having experience more than 10 years in their relevant fields. After developing questionnaire, three repetitions were performed to check its contents validity and acceptability. Finally, the data reliability was verified using Cronbach’s alpha, whichreturned values of 0.635 and 0.865 for different variables of study respectively. Acceptablevalues of Cronbach’s alpha are above 0.7 [40]; therefore, the values for the questionnaireindicated satisfactory reliability. In addition, the construct validity of the questionnaire wastested using Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and all of the SNSs qualities and EER subcriteria were correlated, ensuring the construct validity of the questionnaire [41].

After confirming reliability and validity of the questionnaire, it was rotated among thetelecom sector in Pakistan. Total 650 questionnaire were randomly distributed through convenient sampling technique. 413 questionnaires were returned back. However, 58 questionnaires were not valid for further analysis due to missing values or in-appropriate filled. Finally, 355 questionnaires were used for analysis presenting 55% response rate. The details of respondents are given in Table 1.

5. Developing conceptual model with Structural Equation Modeling
(SEM)

The effect of qualities social networks sites on effective e- recruitment was examined through the maximum likelihood (ML) technique providing aid to the SEM method. The maximum likelihood (ML) technique gives assistances to evaluate unbiased, efficient, and consistentestimates and due to large sample size having the central motive to preferable for ML [42]. The relations among observed variables and latent variables describe by a combination of pathanalyses and confirmatory factor analyses through SEM method. Observed variables (referred to as sub-criteria) can be directly measured from a five-point Likert scale which typically used by researchers. Latent variables cannot be directly measured; along with observed variables amodel must be constructed to measure these variables. Latent variables are further divided into two types: endogenous latent variables and exogenous latent variables. Both endogenous andexogenous variables are indirectly measured by the SEM method. Endogenous variables are dependent variables that can be affected by both endogenous and exogenous variables, whereas exogenous variables are independent variables that can affect other variables. An SEM model consists of two main components: a measurement model and a structural model. The measurement model uses confirmatory factor analysis to determine how well the latent variables are measured by the relevant observed variables, whereas the structural model uses regression analysis and path analysis to identify relationships between latent variables.

Table 1. Demographics

The conceptual measurement model for SNSs qualities consist of five latent variables, i.e., easily navigation, secure process, eminence proficiency, candidate’s attraction towards SNSs, network expedition and their observed variables. The conceptual measurement model foreffective e- recruitment also consist of five latent variables, i.e., low cost, get more opportunity, reduced time, fast process, target group direction and their observed variables. The conceptual SEM model for the relationship between SNSs qualities and effective e-recruitment, whichincludes hypotheses H3, is shown in Fig. 1. In this figure, the latent variables are shown inellipses, and the observed variables are shown in rectangles.

6. Results

The first step of analysis was to check the reliability and validity of the proposed model. Reliability was assessed by using Cronbach’s alpha values and validity was assessed by using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and then further conceptual measurement model for EERand SNSs qualities was verified by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). According to Yazdani, et al. [43], exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is made for the complete measurement tool. The results of EFA show that some items did not have statistical significance regarding factor loadings. According to Hulland [44] items with factor loadings of 0.4 or less, areeliminated. The factor loadings of majority of the items are greater than 0.7 indicating the property of items for measuring-related concept. The other coefficient is using to evaluatereliability is Cronbach’s alpha (CA). CA is a reliability index which shows the extent of oneitem belonging to a certain concept [45]. When CA value is 0.7 or greater, the level of reliability is appropriated and good internal consistency for established scales can be measured [46, 47]. The results for reliability analysis and descriptive statistics are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Reliability analysis and Descriptive statistics

By performing IBM SPSS Amos (version 20) software, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is using to calculate the conceptual model regarding SNSs qualities and effective e-recruitment firstly. After that manipulation of model has validated by the method of CFA. Given data have been used to manipulate:1) SNSs qualities using five latent variables including easilynavigation, secure process, eminence proficiency, candidate’s attraction towards SNSs, network expedition; 2) effective e-recruitment using five latent variables including low cost, get more opportunity, reduced time, fast process, target group direction. Any variable able that & rsquo;s not sufficient during the validity process must be omitted. Models of measurement manipulates and modifies still yet goodness-of-fit criteria has been met the correct assessment (listed in Table 2). In addition, the p-value, relative chi-square (χ< df), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) techniques apply to check the cogency of the conceptual model in the behave of given data [48]. The satisfactory requirement of all the process is given Table 3 which indices modification forboth independent and depended variables. After the validation of conceptual models, SEM models use to manipulate by tests hypothesis H3.

Table 3. Model Fitness indices

The SEM validator procedure has similarity with measurement conceptual models process (Table 5) by using the goodness-of-fit criteria, suggested catalog digits, and adjustment processes. So, the concluding SEM model and SEM’s goodness-of-fit outcomes are given in Table 3 and Fig. 2, correspondingly.

6.1 Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 1 proposed that EER is better than traditional recruitment in the current scenario. Table 2 shows results of comparison between EER and traditional recruitment in differenttelecom companies of Pakistan. Most of the respondents are disagree (145-respondents) aboutusing EER currently in the organization. Respondents agree about the importance of EER inorganization by considering it more valuable (129-respondents), Useful (138-respondents), more preferable (148-respondents), provide more opportunities, and cost effective (132-respondens). More details about comparison of tradition recruitment and EER can beseen in Table 4.

Table 4. Effective E-Recruitment (EER1) vs Conventional Recruitment

Fig. 2. Results of final structural model

6.2 Hypothesis2

Hypothesis 2 proposed that Facebook is a better platform for EER than LinkedIn. Table 3 shows the results for Facebook vs. LinkedIn. Results found that Facebook is better platform considering fit for recruitment (140-respondents), Important site (128-respondents), ads of recruitment (190-respondents). More details about comparison of Facebook and LinkedIn forrecruitment is shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Facebook vs LinkedIn

6.3 Hypothesis 3-13

As hypothesis 3-Hypothesis 13 proposed were proposed to check the role of SNSs quality (easy navigation, secure process, eminence proficiency, candidate’s attraction, networkexpedition) for better recruitment and different indicators contributing to the effectiveness ofe-recruitment. H3 proposed the relationship between SNSs qualities and EER. The goodness-of-fit indices criteria have already been evaluated for the measurement models foreach model (SNSs qualities and EER). Moreover, final SEM-based model depicting therelationship between SNSs and EER was also validated. The validity for both measurementand conceptual model is given in Table 5.

The proposed relationship was represented by an arrow directing from SNSs qualities to EER for hypothesis 3. SEM-based models derive regression weight (0.85) for therelationship and p-values less than 0.05, which proves that relationship is significant. Therefore, the relationship between SNSs qualities and EER was accepted.

R2 value (0.79) of SEM model showed that, there is 79% variance because of SNSs qualities in EER. The results are given in Table 6. All the relationships were statistically significant, socan be accepted as well. The correlation between SNSs qualities and EER, and their proposed relationship results can be seen in Table 6 and Table 7.

Table 6. Correlation Analysis

Table 7. Results of hypothesis

7. Discussion

The word e-recruitment or social recruitment is itself innovative. The present study contributed a first impression to what point the exploit of SNSs leads to efficient e-recruitmentin Pakistan. But there is still require for additional research. Because with the way of timetendency modify, these days 2 websites LinkedIn and Facebook are most well-known foreffective e-recruitment in Pakistan, may be after some decay others sites effective forrecruitment. Job related websites are increasingly used by organizations in order to acquire theneeded employees, as this kind of recruitment is becoming one of the governing types of recruitment methods as jobseekers are shifting from offline to online career opportunities.

The final SEM-based model describe that two latent variables named eminenceproficiency and process security effect on SNSs quality for better recruitment had the highestratio of importance and cause maximum variance with wit 24% and 23% as shown in Table 7. It suggests that SNSs are not proficient to provide better service for recruitment. Previous studies show that eminent proficiency is one of the important SNSs feature for differentpurposes like education, medical and politics. Network expedition is also one of the important feature of SNSs that contributes to effective recruitment wit 19% importance. Easy navigation and candidate’s attraction have least importance wit 18% and 17% consecutively. The weighted importance of each factor contributing SNSs quality for recruitment is shown in Table 8.

The current study covers the six telecom companies of Pakistan but for future theresearchers can covers more companies and also in diverse cities can be taken under thought to confirm the Impact of social media using on effective e-recruitment in Pakistan. Thus, it is necessary to conduct a longitudinal research in order to see modify over time. Thus, the entire idea of recruitment is in a wind of welcoming alters. Recruitment is appropriate more and more relationship and medium based movement. Therefore, E-recruitment has been emerged as the major source of recruitment in now days. This research validated the effectives of twomajor SNSs Facebook and LinkedIn in six telecom companies of Pakistan.

Table 8. Standardized regression weights and relative importance


8. Managerial Implications, Limitations and Future Research
Directions

The present study has contribution to show the impact of social networking sites on effectivee-recruitment on major telecommunications vendor companies of Pakistan. This research covers three parts first to ensure that either tradition recruitment still useful for recruitment or not in terms of ease of accessibility and rapidity of response. Secondly, there is a strongrelationship between Effective e-recruitment and attributes of Social Networking Sites. Thirdly, Maximum Telecommunication Vendor companies in Pakistan prefer e-recruitment through Social Networking Site (SNS) such as Facebook over LinkedIn. All of the three have importance respectively. The result of this study can be obliging for the managers to exploit effective way for recruitment process. It is often pressured by many observers that there is a require for managers to exploit more complicated system forrecruitment process. In this context, the present study approaches to explore the impact of SNSon effective recruitment process. It’s beneficial for the researchers to know that, Facebook is very well-liked site among people these days and it also became the tendency to use Facebook commonly in Pakistan. Although other business sites are also used by some people butcommonly not everyone found of using this site. So, it’s examined that professional sites arenow going to be admired not just for entertainments but also for business orientations.

This research is mostly aspired at the telecom company’s Pakistan in order to investigate the capabilities of social media be relevant to the traditional recruitment methods. So, this study is accomplished in order to demonstrate that social media can function as a recruitment method. However, this caused on occasion slight difficult as the obtained information by means of theresearch results needed to be understand for the entire overall Pakistan’s recruitment system, whereas the respondents provided information based on their own perspective and field. Thus, some provided information throughout this research might be biased from a particularviewpoint in terms of the involved field or purpose. This study was only distributed through two social media networks (Facebook and Linked In), and not distributed through other means, which relied on participating respondents to forward the survey through E-mail or other means. Naturally, this hindered the results to only those who use E-mail. Time constraint was also one of the major limitations of the study. Longitudinal studies can also give different results.

Recruiters who work with job boards on daily basis even mention a rather high risk onselection faults. Hence the fact that it might be concerning to research the future consequences and effects of the recruitment quality with respect to the increasing utilization of job related websites. But the recent study contributed a first overview to what point the employ of SNSsleads to effective e-recruitment. But there is still a need for additional research. According to the HR departments, Facebook is the most important SNS for recruitment in Pakistan at the moment. But is it only a tendency? Companies can alter their user manners and predilections over time. Further research should be carried out to discover how culture affects the applicant & rsquo;s choice of job search channel. In addition, barriers to use of social media fordifferent organizational purposes could be investigated. This would have a positive outlook for the trends of recruitment.

9. Conclusion

This study shows the effectiveness and clear shift in trends, moving from offline to onlinerecruiting practices. Social media has played a considerable role in managing organizations, but companies that can afford to do so use special software, custom online human interaction methods and professional sites (Facebook). Fundamentally, social media has allowedemployees and employers to connect for business reasons, in addition to allowing people to connect and communicate socially. Fortunately, most technically savvy people are aware of privacy options and the probable to only share posted information with people connected with them on the site. Innovative recruitment practices obviously bring original challenges, potentially connecting changes in corporate culture. The exploit of different online software torecruit people involves cultural and sociological transitions. Social media can really tender asolution for promoting the jobs also to people who are not actively seeking for careeropportunities. Facebook for example has got over a million daily consumers in Pakistan, which is unbelievable. We can see the possible using for recruitment currently. Companies have tried to utilize Facebook in their recruiting and succeeded but still needed to investigatemore.

In conclusion, the results show that the role of SNSs in recruitment becomes much more important and can work as effective tool for recruitment for Pakistan companies. HR departments make cautious steps and first experiences with these sites. Most of the organizations questioned make use of the business-oriented networking site LinkedIn but nowtendency change professional site Facebook has much more importance these days. In addition, it becomes evident that in order to locate the right employees to fill up their vacancies, recruiters profit from the networking scope of these sites.

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