Change in Physical Properties depending on Contaminants and Introduction to Case Studies of Geophysical Surveys Applied to Contaminant Detection

오염원에 따른 오염지역 물성 변화 및 물리탐사 적용 사례 소개

  • Yu, Huieun (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Kim, Bitnarae (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Song, Seo Young (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Cho, Sung Oh (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Caesary, Desy (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Nam, Myung Jin (Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University)
  • 유희은 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 김빛나래 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 송서영 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • 조성오 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과) ;
  • ;
  • 남명진 (세종대학교 에너지자원공학과)
  • Received : 2019.06.28
  • Accepted : 2019.08.30
  • Published : 2019.08.31


Recently, safety and environmental concerns have become major social issues. Especially, a special underground-safety law has been made and enacted to prevent ground subsidence around construction sites. For environmental problems, several researches have started or will start on characterization of contaminated sites, in-situ environmental remediation in subsurface, and monitoring of remediation results. As a part of the researches, geophysical surveys, which have been mainly applied to explore mineral resources, geological features or ground, are used to characterize not only contaminated areas but also fluid flow paths in subsurface environments. As a basic study for the application of geophysical surveys to detect contamination in subsurface, this paper analyzes previous researches to understand changes in geophysical properties of contaminated zones by various contaminants such as leachate, heavy metals, and non-adequate phase liquid (NAPL). Furthermore, this paper briefly introduces how geophysical surveys like direct-current electrical resistivity, induced polarization and ground penetration radar surveys can be applied to detect each contamination, before analyzing case studies of the applications in contaminated areas by NAPL, leachate, heavy metal or nitrogen oxides.


Supported by : 환경부


  1. Johansson, S., Fiandaca, G., and Dahlin, T., 2015, Influence of non-aqueous phase liquid configuration on induced polarization parameters: Conceptual models applied to a time-domain field case study, J. Appl. Geophy., 123, 295-309.
  2. Jol, H. M., ed., 2008, Ground penetrating radar theory and applications, Elsevier.
  3. Kang, M. A., Kim, M. S., Choi, B. W., and Sohn, H. Y., 2012, Organic matter analysis and physicochemical properties of leachate from a foot-and-mouth disease landfill site, Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, 40(2), 128-134(in Korean with English abstract).
  4. Kanmani, S., and Gandhimathi, R., 2013, Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil due to leachate migration from an open dumping site, Applied Water Science, 3(1), 193-205.
  5. Kemna, A., Binley, A., and Slater, L., 2004, Crosshole IP imaging for engineering and environmental applications, Geophysics, 69(1), 97-107.
  6. Kim, B., Nam, M. J., Jang, H., Jang, H., Son, J. S., and Kim, H. J., 2017, The Principles and Practice of Induced Polarization Method, Geophys. and Geophys. Explor., 20(2), 100-113 (in Korean with English abstract).
  7. Kim, J. H., Yi, M. J., Park, S. G., and Kim, J. G., 2009, 4-D inversion of DC resistivity monitoring data acquired over a dynamically changing earth model, J. Appl. Geophy., 68(4), 522-532.
  8. Kim, K. W., Myung, J. H., Ahn, J. S., and Chon, H. T., 1998, Heavy metal contamination in dusts and stream sediments in the Taejon area, Korea, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 64(1-3), 409-419.
  9. Lago, A. L., Costa, I. S. L., da Cunha, F. G., and de Oliveira e Sousa, F. R. F. R., 2018, Geophysical investigation using the GPR method: a case study on the contamination of lead in the Santo Amaro town, Bahia, Brazil, Journal of the Geological Survey of Brazil, 1(2), 61-67.
  10. Frangos, W., and Andrezal, T., 1994, IP measurements at contaminant and toxic waste sites in Slovakia, In the John S. Sumner Mem. Int. Workshop Induced Polarization (IP) in Mining and The Environment. Dep. Min. Geol. Eng., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
  11. Gazoty, A., Fiandaca, G., Pedersen, J., Auken, E., and Christiansen, A. V., 2012, Mapping of landfills using time-domain spectral induced polarization data: The Eskelund case study, Near Surf. Geophys., 10(6), 575-586.
  12. Gazoty, A., Fiandaca, G., Pedersen, J., Auken, E., Christiansen, A. V., and Pedersen, J. K., 2012, Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(6), 1793-1804.
  13. Grellier, S., Guerin, R., Robain, H., Bobachev, A., Vermeersch, F., and Tabbagh, A., 2008, Monitoring of leachate recirculation in a bioreactor landfill by 2-D electrical resistivity imaging, Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, 13(4), 351-359.
  14. Giampaolo, V., Rizzo, E., Titov, K., Konosavsky, P., Laletina, D., Maineult, A., and Lapenna, V., 2014, Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil-contaminated site (Trecate, Italy), Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(15), 8932-8947.
  15. Goes, B. J. M., and Meekes, J. A. C., 2004, An effective electrode configuration for the detection of DNAPLs with electrical resistivity tomography, Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, 9(3), 127-141.
  16. Hamzah, U., Samsudin, A. R., and Ismail, M. A., 2009, Geoelectrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar techniques in the study of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, Sains Malaysiana, 38(3), 305-311.
  17. Islami, N., 2017, Evaluation of the Fate of Nitrate and Analysis of Shallow Soil Water using Geo-electrical Resistivity Survey, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 49(4), 491-507.
  18. Johnson, T. C., Versteeg, R. J., Ward, A., Day-Lewis, F. D., and Revil, A., 2010, Improved hydrogeophysical characterization and monitoring through parallel modeling and inversion of time-domain resistivity andinduced-polarization data, Geophysics, 75(4), WA27-WA41.
  19. Johansson B., Jones S., Dahlin T., and Flyhammar P., 2007, Comparisons of 2D- and 3D-Inverted Resistivity Data As Well As of Resistivity- and IP-Surveys on a Landfill, Near Surface 2007, Istanbul, Turkey, Expanded Abstracts, 42.
  20. Doherty, R., Kulessa, B., Ferguson, A. S., Larkin, M. J., Kulakov, L. A., and Kalin, R. M., 2010, A microbial fuel cell in contaminated ground delineated by electrical self-potential and normalized induced polarization data, J. Geophys. Res.: Biogeosciences, 15(G3).
  21. Draskovits, P., 1994. Application of induced polarization methods in integrated studies of ground water exploration and characterization of subsurface contamination, In The John S. Sumner Mem. Int. Workshop Induced Polarization (IP) in Mining and The Environment. Dep. Min. Geol. Eng., Univ.. Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
  22. Ahmed, A. M., and Sulaiman, W. N., 2001, Evaluation of groundwater and soil pollution in a landfill area using electrical resistivity imaging survey, Environmental Management, 28(5), 655-663.
  23. Allen, J. P., Atekwana, E. A., Atekwana, E. A., Duris, J. W., Werkema, D. D., and Rossbach, S., 2007, The microbial community structure in petroleum-contaminated sediments corresponds to geophysical signatures, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73(9), 2860-2870.
  24. Aristodemou, E., and Thomas-Betts, A., 2000, DC resistivity and induced polarisation investigations at a waste disposal site and its environments, J. Appl. Geophy., 44(2-3), 275-302.
  25. Yuval, D., and Oldenburg, W., 1996, DC resistivity and IP methods in acid mine drainage problems: results from the Copper Cliff mine tailings impoundments, J. Appl. Geophy., 34(3), 187-198.
  26. Atekwana, E. A., and Atekwana, E. A., 2010, Geophysical signatures of microbial activity at hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review, Surveys in Geophysics, 31(2), 247-283.
  27. Atekwana, E. A., Sauck, W. A., and Werdckema, D. D., 2000, Investigations of geoelectrical signatures at hydrocarbon site, J. Appl. Geophy., 44, 167-180.
  28. Atekwana, E. A., Cassidy, D. P., Magnuson, C., Endres, A. L., Werkema Jr, D. D., and Sauck, W. A., 2001, January. Changes in geoelectrical properties accompanying microbial degradation of LNAPL, In Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2001, Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
  29. Atekwana, E. A., Werkema, D. D., and Atekwana, E. A., 2006, Biogeophysics: The effects of microbial processes on geophysical properties of the shallow subsurface, In Applied hydrogeophysics, Springer, Dordrecht, 161-193.
  30. Atekwana, E. A., and Atekwana, E. A., 2010, Geophysical signatures of microbial activity at hydrocarbon contaminated sites: A review, Surveys in Geophysics, 31(2), 247-283.
  31. Babcock, E., and Bradford, J., 2013, July. Detecting subsurface contamination using ground penetrating radar and amplitude variation with offset analysis, In 2013 7th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar. IEEE, 1-5.
  32. Bavusi, M., Rizzo, E., Lapenna, V., and Piscitelli, S., 2006, September. Municipal Waste Dump Geophysical Investigation, In Near Surface 2006-12th EAGE European Meeting of Environmental and Enginering Geophysics.
  33. Belmonte-Jimenez, S. I., Jimenez-Castaneda, M. E., Perez-Flores, M. A., Campos-Enriquez, J. O., Reyes-Lopez, J. A., and Salazar-Pena, L., 2012, Characterization of a leachate contaminated site integrating geophysical and hydrogeological information, Geofisica International, 51(4), 309-321.
  34. Benson, A. K., 1993, Case studies using ground penetrating radar to help assess groundwater contamination, shallow faulting, faults, and cavities, In Proceeding of the 29th Symposium on Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering Engineering, Idaho State University Rena, 63-89.
  35. Benson, A. K., 1995, Applications of ground penetrating radar in assessing some geological hazards: examples of groundwater contamination, faults, cavities, J. Appl. Geophy., 33(1-3), 177-193.
  36. Benyassine, E. M., Lachhab, A., Dekayir, A., Parisot, J. C., and Rouai, M., 2017, An Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography to Investigate Heavy Metals Pathways, J. Environ. Eng. Geoph., 22(4), 315-324.
  37. Binley, A., and Kemna, A., 2005a, DC resistivity and induced polarization methods. In Hydrogeophysics, Springer, Dordrecht, 129-156.
  38. Binley, A., Slater, L. D., Fukes, M., and Cassiani, G., 2005b, Relationship between spectral induced polarization and hydraulic properties of saturated and unsaturated sandstone, Water Resources Research, 41(12).
  39. Boleve, A., Revil, A., Janod, F., Mattiuzzo, J. L., and Jardani, A., 2007, A new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 4(3), 1429-1463.
  40. Buselli, G., and Lu, K., 2001, Groundwater contamination monitoring with multichannel electrical and electromagnetic methods, J. Appl. Geophy., 48(1), 11-23.
  41. Cardarelli, E., and Di Filippo, G., 2009, Electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography in identifying the plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formation: a case study in Rho (Milan-Italy), Waste Management & Research, 27(6), 595-602.
  42. Castelluccio, M., Agrahari, S., De Simone, G., Pompilj, F., Lucchetti, C., Sengupta, D., Galli, G., Friello, P., Curatolo, P., Giorgi, R., and Tuccimei, P., 2018, Using a multi-method approach based on soil radon deficit, resistivity, and induced polarization measurements to monitor non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in two study areas in Italy and India, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-13.
  43. Chu, L. M., Cheung, K. C., and Wong, M. H., 1994, Variations in the chemical properties of landfill leachate, Environmental Management, 18(1), 105-117.
  44. Ch, S. R., and Chandrashekhar, V., 2014, Detecting oil contamination by Ground Penetrating Radar around an oil storage facility in Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, J. Ind. Geophys. Union (october 2014), 18(4), 448-454.
  45. Coulouma, G., Samyn, K., Grandjean, G., Follain, S., and Lagacherie, P., 2012, Combining seismic and electric methods for predicting bedrock depth along a Mediterranean soil toposequence, Geoderma, 170, 39-47.
  46. Daily, W., and Ramirez, A., 1995, Electrical resistance tomography during in-situ trichloroethylene remediation at the Savannah River Site, J. Appl. Geophy., 33(4), 239-249.
  47. DeRyck, S. M., Redman, J. D., and Annan, A. P., 1993, January. Geophysical monitoring of a controlled kerosene spill, In Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 1993, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 5-19.
  48. Doetsch, J., Fiandaca, G., Auken, E., Christiansen, A. V., Cahill, A. G., and Jakobsen, R., 2015, Field-scale time-domain spectral induced polarization monitoring of geochemical changes induced by injected $CO_2$ in a shallow aquifer, Geophysics, 80(2), 113-126.
  49. Leroux V., Dahlin T., and Rosqvist H., 2010, Time-domain IP and Resistivity Sections Measured at Four Landfills with Different Contents, Near Surface 2010, Zurich, Switzerland, Expanded Abstracts, 9.
  50. Liu, H. C., Wang, T. P., Lin, C. P., and Yang, C. H., 2016, June. Geoelectrical mapping of the soil and groundwater contaminated site: Case study from Taiwan, In 7th International Conference on Environment and Engineering Geophysics & Summit Forum of Chinese Academy of Engineering on Engineering Science and Technology. Atlantis Press.
  51. Longino, B. L., and Kueper, B. H., 1999, Nonwetting phase retention and mobilization in rock fractures, Water Resources Research, 35(7), 2085-2093.
  52. Luo, Y., and Rimmer, D. L., 1995, Zinc-copper interaction affecting plant growth on a metal-contaminated soil, Environmental Pollution, 88(1), 79-83.
  53. Martinho, E., and Almeida, F., 2006, 3D behaviour of contamination in landfill sites using 2D resistivity/IP imaging: case studies in Portugal, Environmental Geology, 49(7), 1071-1078.
  54. Matias, M. S., da Silva, M. M., Ferreira, P., and Ramalho, E., 1994, A geophysical and hydrogeological study of aquifers contamination by a landfill, J. Appl. Geophy., 32(2-3), 155-162.
  55. Naidu, R., 2013, Recent advances in contaminated site remediation, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 224(12), 1705.
  56. Naudet, V., Gourry, J. C., Mathieu, F., Girard, J. F., Blondel, A., and Saada, A., 2011, September. 3D electrical resistivity tomography to locate DNAPL contamination in an urban environment, In Near Surface 2011-17th EAGE European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics.
  57. Naudet, V., Revil, A., Rizzo, E., Bottero, J. Y., and Begassat, P., 2004, Groundwater redox conditions and conductivity in a contaminant plume from geoelectrical investigations, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 8(1), 8-22.
  58. Orozco, A. F., Kemna, A., Oberdorster, C., Zschornack, L., Leven, C., Dietrich, P., and Weiss, H., 2012, Delineation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination at a former hydrogenation plant using spectral induced polarization imaging, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 136, 131-144.
  59. Park, S., Yi, M. J., Kim, J. H., and Shin, S. W., 2016, Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) monitoring for groundwater contamination in an uncontrolled landfill, South Korea, J. Appl. Geophy., 135, 1-7.
  60. Resurs, R., 2010, Resistivity-IP mapping for landfill applications, First Break, 28(8).
  61. Revil, A., and Skold, M., 2011, Salinity dependence of spectral induced polarization in sands and sandstones, Geophys. J. Int., 187(2), 813-824.
  62. Revil, A., Karaoulis, M., Johnson, T., and Kemna, A., 2012, Some low-frequency electrical methods for subsurface characterization and monitoring in hydrogeology, Hydrogeology Journal, 20(4), 617-658.
  63. Revil, A., Wu, Y., Karaoulis, M., Hubbard, S. S., Watson, D. B., and Eppehimer, J. D., 2013, Geochemical and geophysical responses during the infiltration of fresh water into the contaminated saprolite of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Tennessee, Water Resources Research, 49(8), 4952-4970.
  64. Rubin, H., Narkis, N., and Carberry, J. B., 1998, Overview of NAPL contamination and reclamation, In Soil and Aquifer Pollution (3-17). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  65. Rucker, D. F., Fink, J. B., and Loke, M. H., 2011, Environmental monitoring of leaks using time-lapsed long electrode electrical resistivity, J. Appl. Geophy., 74(4), 242-254.
  66. Santos, F. A. M., Mateus, A., Figueiras, J., and Goncalves, M. A., 2006, Mapping groundwater contamination around a landfill facility using the VLF-EM method: a case study, J. Appl. Geophy., 60(2), 115-125.
  67. Schmutz, M., Revil, A., Vaudelet, P., Batzle, M., Vinao, P. F., and Werkema, D. D., 2010, Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil-bearing sands, Geophys. J. Int., 183(1), 211-224.
  68. Schmutz, M., Blondel, A., and Revil, A., 2012, Saturation dependence of the quadrature conductivity of oil-bearing sands, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(3).
  69. Schneider, G. W., and Greenhouse, J. P., 1992, January. Geophysical detection of perchloroethylene in a sandy aquifer using resistivity and nuclear logging techniques, In Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 1992, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 619-628.
  70. Seigel, H. O., 1959, Mathematical formulation and type curves for induced-polarization, Geophysics, 24(3), 547-565.
  71. Sililo, O. T. N., 1999, Groundwater contamination by organic chemicals in industrializing countries: the unseen threat, IAHS PUBLICATION, 23-28.
  72. Soupios, P., Papadopoulos, N., Papadopoulos, I., Kouli, M., Vallianatos, F., Sarris, A., and Manios, T., 2007, Application of integrated methods in mapping waste disposal areas, Environmental Geology, 53(3), 661.
  73. Song, S. Y., and Nam, M. J., 2018, A Technical Review on Principles and Practices of Self-potential Method Based on Streaming Potential, Geophys. and Geophys. Explor., 21(4), 231-243 (in Korean with English abstract).
  74. Titov, K., Ilyin, Y., Konosavsky, P., Orlova, O., Rybaltchenko, O., Muslimov, A., and Maineult, A., 2012, Physical Properties of Oil-contaminated Sand Affected by Microbial Activity under Aerobic Conditions, In 5th EAGE St. Petersburg International Conference and Exhibition on Geosciences-Making the Most of the Earth Resources.
  75. Titov, K., Tarasov, A., Ilyin, Y., Seleznev, N., and Boyd, A., 2010, Relationships between induced polarization relaxation time and hydraulic properties of sandstone, Geophys. J. Int., 180(3), 1095-1106.
  76. Tsuchiya, K., 1969, Causation of Ouch-ouch disease (Itai-Itai Byo)-an introductory review, The Keio journal of medicine, 18(4), 195-211.
  77. Vanhala, H., Soininen, H., and Kukkonen, I., 1992, Detecting organic chemical contaminants by spectral-induced polarization method in glacial till environment, Geophysics, 57(8), 1014-1017.
  78. Wang, T. P., Chen, C. C., Tong, L. T., Chang, P. Y., Chen, Y. C., Dong, T. H., Liu, H. C., Lin, C. P., Yang, K. H., Ho, C. J., and Cheng, S. N., 2015, Applying FDEM, ERT and GPR at a site with soil contamination: a case study, J. Appl. Geophy., 121, 21-30.
  79. Wardlaw, S., and Wagner, R., 1994, Development of waste rock sampling protocol using induced polarization, CANMETMSLDiv., 777-071, Final Rep. Ottawa: Nat. Resour. Can.
  80. Win, Z., Hamzah, U., Ismail, M. A., and Samsudin, A. R., 2011, Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR: A case study of an oil spill site at Seberang Prai, Penang, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, 57, 19-25.
  81. Zelt, C. A., Azaria, A., and Levander, A., 2006, 3D seismic refraction traveltime tomography at a groundwater contamination site, Geophysics, 71(5), 67-78.
  82. Yaylali-Abanuz, G., 2011, Heavy metal contamination of surface soil around Gebze industrial area, Turkey, Microchemical Journal, 99(1), 82-92.