Robust Ultrasound Multigate Blood Volume Flow Estimation

  • Zhang, Yi (College of Computer Science, Sichuan University) ;
  • Li, Jinkai (College of Computer Science, Sichuan University) ;
  • Liu, Xin (College of Computer Science, Sichuan University) ;
  • Liu, Dong Chyuan (College of Computer Science, Sichuan University)
  • Received : 2017.11.15
  • Accepted : 2018.07.14
  • Published : 2019.08.31


Estimation of accurate blood volume flow in ultrasound Doppler blood flow spectrograms is extremely important for clinical diagnostic purposes. Blood volume flow measurements require the assessment of both the velocity distribution and the cross-sectional area of the vessel. Unfortunately, the existing volume flow estimation algorithms by ultrasound lack the velocity space distribution information in cross-sections of a vessel and have the problems of low accuracy and poor stability. In this paper, a new robust ultrasound volume flow estimation method based on multigate (RMG) is proposed and the multigate technology provides detail information on the local velocity distribution. In this method, an accurate double iterative flow velocity estimation algorithm (DIV) is used to estimate the mean velocity and it has been tested on in vivo data from carotid. The results from experiments indicate a mean standard deviation of less than 6% in flow velocities when estimated for a range of SNR levels. The RMG method is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup, Doppler phantom and imitation blood flow control system. In vitro experimental results show that the mean error of the RMG algorithm is 4.81%. Low errors in blood volume flow estimation make the prospect of using the RMG algorithm for real-time blood volume flow estimation possible.


Blood Volume Flow Estimation;Flow Velocity Estimation;Ultrasound


  1. H. Greenberg, S. U. Raymond, and S. R. Leeder, "Cardiovascular Disease and global health: threat and opportunity," Health Affairs, vol. 24 no. Suppl1, pp. W5-31, 2015.
  2. M. Xu, "Local measurement of the pulse wave velocity using Doppler ultrasound," M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
  3. U. Weber, N. J. Glassford, G. M. Eastwood, R. Bellomo, and A. K. Hilton, "A pilot assessment of carotid and brachial artery blood flow estimation using ultrasound Doppler in cardiac surgery patients," Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 141-148, 2016.
  4. P. N. Burns, "Measuring volume flow with Doppler ultrasound: an old nut," Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 238-241, 1992.
  5. R. W. Gill, "Pulsed Doppler with B-mode imaging for quantitative blood flow measurement," Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 223-235, 1979.
  6. J. B. Sauders, N. Wright, and K. O. Lewis, "Measurement of human fetal blood flow," British Medical Journal (BMJ), vol. 280, no. 6210, pp. 283-284, 1980.
  7. R. Tabrizchi and M. K. Pugsley, "Methods of blood flow measurement in the arterial circulatory system," Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 375-384, 2000.
  8. H. A. Kontos, "Validity of cerebral arterial blood flow calculations from velocity measurements," Stroke, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-3, 1989.
  9. G. R. Bashford, "Ultrasonic measurement of blood flow velocity and applications for cardiovascular assessments," in Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease. Dordrecht: Springer, 2016, pp. 1025-1055.
  10. O. D. Kripfgans, J. M. Rubin, A. L. Hall, M. B. Gordon, and J. B. Fowlkes, "Measurement of volumetric flow," Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1305-1311, 2006.
  11. M. G. J. Arts and J. M. J. G. Roevros, "On the instantaneous measurement of bloodflow by ultrasonic means," Medical and Biological Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 23-34, 1972.
  12. S. Bower, S. Vyas, S. Campbell, and K. H. Nicolaides, "Color Doppler imaging of the uterine artery in pregnancy: normal ranges of impedance to blood flow, mean velocity and volume of flow," Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 261-265, 1992.
  13. R. Albayrak, B. Degirmenci, M. Acar, A. Haktanir, M. Colbay, and M. Yaman, "Doppler sonography evaluation of flow velocity and volume of the extracranial internal carotid and vertebral arteries in healthy adults," Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27-33, 2007.
  14. E. J. Boote, "AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: topics in US: Doppler US techniques: concepts of blood flow detection and flow dynamics," Radiographics, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1315-1327, 2003.
  15. F. Figueras, S. Fernandez, E. Hernandez-Andrade, and E. Gratacos, "Umbilical venous blood flow measurement: accuracy and reproducibility," Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 587-591, 2008.
  16. P. Sahoo and T. Riedel, "Lagrange's mean value theorem and related functional equations," in Mean Value Theorems and Functional Equations. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1998, pp. 25-81.
  17. M. Mateljevic, M. Svetlik, M. Albijanic, and N. Savic, "Generalizations of the Lagrange mean value theorem and applications," Filomat, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 515-528, 2013.
  18. M. Hagara and A. Hlavatovic, "Video segmentation based on Pratt's figure of merit," in Proceedings of 2009 19th International Conference Radioelektronika, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2009, pp. 91-94.
  19. D. V. Dubinin, A. I. Kochegurov, and V. E. Geringer, "Modification Pratt figure of merit," Reshetnevske Readings, vol. 2015, no. 2, pp. 36-39, 2015.
  20. W. Fu, M. Johnston, and M. Zhang, "Genetic programming for edge detection: a Gaussian-based approach," Soft Computing, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1231-1248, 2016.