Analysis of Antioxidant Components in Coffee Making Process Using Washed Coffee and Natural Coffee

워시드 커피와 내추럴 커피를 활용한 커피제조 과정에서의 항산화 성분 분석

Shin, Hye-Kyung

  • Received : 2019.03.13
  • Accepted : 2019.07.15
  • Published : 2019.08.31


This study examines the changes in chlorogenic acid (CGA), an antioxidant, and one of its decomposition substances, caffeic acid, at various roasting stages and extraction conditions. Based on the CGA content for each roasting stage, at $3^{\circ}C$ after the beginning of the $1^{st}$ crack, the CGA decreased for washed beans and natural beans by more than 50% compared to that of green coffees. The CGA continued to decrease sharply by more than 75% at the end of the $1^{st}$ crack for washed beans and at $5^{\circ}C$ after the end of the $1^{st}$ crack for natural beans. At the peak of the $2^{nd}$ crack, it had decreased by more than 90% for both beans. The Caffeic acid content gradually increased for both washed and natural beans, then rapidly increased from the beginning of the $2^{nd}$ crack to the peak of the $2^{nd}$ crack. However, its contents were very small in quantity. Additionally, the content of CGAs for differing extraction conditions were in the order of 3-CGA, Crypto-CGA, and Neo-CGA. Crypto-CGA content was about half that of 3-CGA and Neo-CGA content was approximately 100 ppm less than that of Crypto-CGA. This study was conducted in order to help make coffee that has the most antioxidant effect.


antioxidant;chlorogenic acid;caffeic acid;washed coffee;natural coffee;coffee extraction conditions;the degree of coffee roasting


  1. Kim JY, Han YS. 2009. Influence of roasting time on antibacterial and antioxidative effects of coffee extract. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 25:496-505
  2. Kim JY. 2008. Changes in coffee antioxidant ability and food Jngredients of coffee bean extracts by manufacturing process. Master's Thesis. Pukyong National Univ. Korea
  3. Kim KJ, Park SK. 2006. Changes in major chemical constituents of green coffee beans during the roasting. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:153-158
  4. Kim KJ. 2001. Studies on the changes in chemical constituents and sensory characteristics of green coffee beans during roasting. Ph.D. Dissertation. Kyung Hee Univ. Korea
  5. Kim YA. 2013. Effect of roasting on coffee (Coffea arabica) bitter taste induced chemical composition and sensory characteristics, Master's Thesis, Seoul Venture Univ. Korea
  6. Korea Coffee Association. 2016. Coffee instructor level 1. pp. 139-211. Coffee Today
  7. Lee JG. 2016. Coffee extraction method. J Korea Soc Coffee for Coffee Ind 5:1-6
  8. Lee YR. 2019. Antioxidant activity of peanut flours with germination and roasting. Korean J Food Nutr 32:155-159
  9. Lingle TR. 2019. The Coffee Cupper's Handbook: A systematic guide to the sensory evaluation of coffee's flavor. Specialty Coffee Association of America
  10. Mun SY. 2017. Components of coffee. Daejeon Daily News. Available from 2017.5.11. [cited 16 April 2019]
  11. Naidu MM, Sulochanamma G, Sampathu SR, Srinivas P. 2008. Studies on extraction and antioxidant potential of green coffee. Food Chem 107:377-384
  12. Noratto G, Porter W, Byme D, Cisneros-Zevallos L. 2009. Identifying peach and plum polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against estrogen-independent breast cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 57:5219-5226
  13. Agtron Roaster Color Kit. 2019. Available from [cited 24 January 2019]
  14. Cammerer B, Kroh, LW. 2006. Antioxidant activity of coffee brews. Eur Food Res Technol 223:469-474
  15. Frank O, Blumberg S, Krumpel G, Hofmann T. 2008. Structure determination of 3-O-caffeoyl-epi-gamma-quinide, an orphan bitter lactone in roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem 56:9581-9585
  16. Giada MDLR. 2013. Food Phenolic Compounds: Main Classes, Sources and Their Antioxidant Power. IntechOpen. Available from [cited 30 March 2019]
  17. Glabasnia A, Blank I, Mora F, Leloup V, Kerker J. 2012. The multiple role of polyphenol chemistry in coffee associated with quality attributes. pp.1-44, 24th ASIC Conference Costa Rica
  18. Ivon F. 2001. Coffee Flavor Chemistry. pp.26-27. John Wiley & Sons
  19. Jo SJ. 2014. Study on the change of caffeine and antioxidant composition by roasting condition and extraction time of coffee bean. Master's Thesis. Chungwoon Univ. Korea
  20. Kim HK, Hwang SY, Yoon SB, Chun DS, Kong SK, Kang KO. 2007. A study of the characteristics of different coffee beans by roasting and extracting condition. Korean J Food Nutr 20:14-19
  21. Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Katan MB. 2001. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans. J Nutr 131:66-71
  22. Perez-Martinez M, Caemmerer B, De Pena MP, Cid C, Kroh LW. 2010. Influence of brewing method and acidity regulators on the antioxidant capacity of coffee brews. J Agric Food Chem 58:2958-2965
  23. Rhi JW, Shin HS. 1993. Antioxidative effect of brown materials extracted from roasted coffee beans. Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 25:220-224
  24. Shin HK, Lee SG. 2015. Green Coffee. pp.2-3. Coffee Today
  25. So YJ, Lee MW, Yoo KM, Kang HJ, Hwang IK. 2014. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of dutch coffee depending on different extraction conditions and storage. Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 46:671-676
  26. Takeoka GR, Dao LT. 2003. Antioxident constituents of almond [Prunus culcis (Mill.) DA Webb] hulls. J Agric Food Chem 51:496-501
  27. Vignoli JA, Bassoli DG, Benassi MT. 2011. Antioxidant activity, polyphenols, caffeine and melanoidins in soluble coffee: The influence of processing conditions and raw material. Food Chem 124:863-868
  28. Wintgens JN. 2004. Coffee: Growing, processing, sustainable production. A guide for growers, traders, and researchers. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA
  29. Yen WJ, Wang BS, Chang LW, Duh PD. 2005. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues. J Agric Food Chem 53:2658-2663