# The Application of the Next-generation Medium Satellite C-band Radar Images in Environmental Field Works

• Han, Hyeon-gyeong (Center for Environment Assessment Monitoring, Korea Environment Institute) ;
• Lee, Moungjin (Center for Environment Assessment Monitoring, Korea Environment Institute)
• Accepted : 2019.08.26
• Published : 2019.08.31

#### Abstract

Numerous water disasters have recently occurred all over the world, including South Korea, due to global climate change in recent years. As water-related disasters occur extensively and their sites are difficult for people to access, it is necessary to monitor them using satellites. The Ministry of Environment and K-water plan to launch the next-generation medium satellite No. 5 (water resource/water disaster satellite) equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in 2025. C-band SAR has the advantage of being able to observe water resources twice a day at a high resolution both day and night, regardless of weather conditions. Currently, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1 equipped with C-band SAR achieve the purpose of their launch and are used in various environmental fields such as forest structure detection and coastline change monitoring, as well as for unique purposes including the detection of flooding, drought and soil moisture change, utilizing the advantages of SAR. As such, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of the next-generation medium satellite No. 5 and its application in environmental fields. Our findings showed that it can be used to improve the degree of precision of existing environmental spatial information such as the classification accuracy of land cover map in environmental field works. It also enables us to observe forests and water resources in North Korea that are difficult to access geographically. It is ultimately expected that this will enable the monitoring of the whole Korean Peninsula in various environmental fields, and help in relevant responses and policy supports.

#### Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE)

#### References

1. Alessandro, C. M., S. Michele, R. Margherita, R. Enrica, M. Andrea, and M. Oriol, 2019. Sentinel-1 SAR Amplitude Imagery for Rapid Landslide Detection, Remote Sensing, 11(7): 760. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070760
4. Curlander, J. C. and R. N. McDonough, 1991. Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems and Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY, USA.
5. European Space Agency, 2014. What is Sentinel-1, https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/missions/esa-operational-eo-missions/sentinel-1;jsessionid=EDC269F8102CDE3BE586F4DE7BEEF965.jvm2, Accessed on Jul. 30, 2019.
6. Gao, Q., M. Zribi, M. Escorihuela, and N. Baghdadi, 2017. Synergetic use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data for soil moisture mapping at 100 m resolution, Sensors, 17(9): 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17091966
7. Hornacek, M., W. Wagner, D. Sabel, H. L. Truong, P. Snoeij, T. Hahmann, E. Diedrich, and M. Doubkova, 2012. Potential for high resolution systematic global surface soil moisture retrieval via change detection using Sentinel-1, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5(4): 1303-1311. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2012.2190136
8. Jung, H. C., S. W. Kim, B. C. Kim, K. D. Min, and J. S. Won, 2004. Observation of the Ground Subsidence in the Abandoned Gaeun Coal Mining Area using JERS-1 SAR, Economic and Environment Geology, 37(5): 509-519 (in Korean with English abstract).
9. Kang, M. G., Y. Y. Park, M. J. Lee, and H. Y. Lee, 2007. Study on the Extraction of Ocean Wind, Wave and Current using SAR, Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research, 31(1): 35-42 (in Korean with English abstract).
10. Kwak, W. G., 2011. Satellite Image Radar (SAR) Technology Trends, The Proceedings of the Korea Electromagnetic Engineering Society, 22(6): 4-16.
11. Lee, M. J., W. Park, and W. K. Song, 2017. Present Condition of Environment Geospatial Information and Its Application, Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, 33(5-3): 763-771 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.7780/kjrs.2017.33.5.3.1
12. Lee, S. W., 2017. A Study on the Systematic Inspection of the Measures for Flood and Drought, Audit and Inspection Research Institute, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea.
13. Paloscia, S., S. Pettinato, E. Santi, C. Notarnicola, L. Pasolli, and A. Reppucci, 2013. Soil moisture mapping using Sentinel-1 images: Algorithm and preliminary validation, Remote Sensing of Environment, 134: 234-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.02.027
14. Soh, L. K. and C. Tsatsoulis, 1999. Texture analysis of SAR sea ice imagery using gray level co-occurrence matrices, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 37(2): 780-795. https://doi.org/10.1109/36.752194
15. Townsend, P. A., 2001. Mapping seasonal flooding in forested wetlands using multi-temporal Radarsat SAR, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 67(7): 857-864.
16. V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H. O. Portner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P. R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Pean, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J. B. R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M. I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, T. Waterfield (eds.), 2018. IPCC: Summary for Policymakers, In: Global warming of $1.5^{\circ}C$. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of $1.5^{\circ}C$ above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p. 32.
17. Waske, B. and M. Braun, 2009. Classifier ensembles for land cover mapping using multitemporal SAR imagery, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(5): 450-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2009.01.003
18. Yoon, H. J., K. S. Kwang, and S. I. Kim, 2006. Ocean Wind Retrieval from RADAR SAR image in Korean seas, Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, 10(4): 706-711 (in Korean with English abstract).