Estimation of HCHO Column Using a Multiple Regression Method with OMI and MODIS Data

  • Hong, Hyunkee (Environmental Satellite Center, National Institute of Environmental Research: Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Yang, Jiwon (Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kang, Hyeongwoo (Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Daewon (Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Hanlim (Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University)
  • Received : 2019.07.04
  • Accepted : 2019.07.31
  • Published : 2019.08.31


We have estimated the vertical column density (VCD) of formaldehyde (HCHO) on a global scale using a multiple linear regression method (MRM) with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. HCHO VCDs were estimated in regions of biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic emissions using independent variables, including $NO_2$ VCD, land surface temperature (LST), an enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and the mean fire radiative power (MFRP), which are strongly correlated with HCHO. To evaluate the HCHO estimates obtained using the MRM, we compared estimates of HCHO VCD data measured by OMI ($HCHO_{OMI}$) with those estimated by multiple linear regression equations (MRE) ($HCHO_{MRE}$). Good MRM performances were found, having the average statistical values (R = 0.91, slope = 1.03, mean bias = $-0.12{\times}10^{15}molecules\;cm^{-2}$, percent difference = 11.27%) between $HCHO_{MRE}$ and $HCHO_{OMI}$ in our study regions where high HCHO levels are present. Our results demonstrate that the MRM can be a useful tool for estimating atmospheric HCHO levels.


Supported by : Pukyong National University


  1. Abbot, D. S., P. I. Palmer, R. V. Martin, K. V. Chance, D. J. Jacob, and A. Guenther, 2003. Seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from space, Geophysical Research Letters, 30(17).
  2. Abdul-Wahab, S. A., C. S. Bakheit, and S. M. Al-Alawi, 2005. Principal component and multiple regression analysis in modelling of ground-level ozone and factors affecting its concentrations, Environmental Modelling & Software, 20(10): 1263-1271.
  3. Anderson, L. G., J. A. Lanning, R. Barrell, J. Miyagishima, R. H. Jones, and P. Wolfe, 1996. Sources and sinks of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: An analysis of Denver's ambient concentration data, Atmospheric Environment, 30(12): 2113-2123.
  4. Andreae, M. O., and P. Merlet, 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(4): 955-966.
  5. Barkley, M. P., P. I. Palmer, U. Kuhn, J. Kesselmeier, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, D. Helmig, and A. Guenther, 2008. Net ecosystem fluxes of isoprene over tropical South America inferred from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) observations of HCHO columns, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D20).
  6. Bey, I., D. J. Jacob, R. M. Yantosca, J. A. Logan, B. D. Field, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, H. Y. Liu, L. J. Mickley, and M. G. Schultz, 2001. Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D19): 23073-23095.
  7. Boeke, N. L., J. D. Marshall, S. Alvarez, K. V. Chance, A. Fried, T. P. Kurosu, B. Rappengluck, D. Richter, J. Walega, and P. Weibring, 2011. Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft data and a global model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D5).
  8. Chance, K., P. I. Palmer, R. J. D. Spurr, R. V. Martin, T. P. Kurosu, and D. J. Jacob, 2000. Satellite observations of formaldehyde over North America from GOME, Geophysical Research Letters, 27(21): 3461-3464.
  9. Choi, W., H. Hong, J. Park, and H. Lee, 2015. First-time estimation of HCHO column in major cities over Asia using multiple regression with satellite data, Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, 31(6): 523-530 (in Korean with English abstract).
  10. De Smedt, I., J. F. Muller, T. Stavrakou, R. Van Der A, H. Eskes, and M. Van Roozendael, 2008. Twelve years of global observations of formaldehyde in the troposphere using GOME and SCIAMACHY sensors, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8: 4947-4963.
  11. De Smedt, I., T. Stavrakou, J. F. Muller, R. Van Der A, and M. Van Roozendael, 2010. Trend detection in satellite observations of formaldehyde tropospheric columns, Geophysical Research Letters, 37(18).
  12. Dufour, G., S. Szopa, M. P. Barkley, C. D. Boone, A. Perrin, P. I. Palmer, and P. F. Bernath, 2009. Global upper-tropospheric formaldehyde: seasonal cycles observed by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(12): 3893-3910.
  13. Fu, T. M., D. J. Jacob, P. I. Palmer, K. Chance, Y. X. Wang, B. Barletta, D. R. Blake, J. C. Stanton, and M. J. Pilling, 2007. Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications for ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D6).
  14. Geiger, H., J. Kleffmann, and P. Wiesen, 2002. Smog chamber studies on the influence of diesel exhaust on photosmog formation, Atmospheric Environment, 36(11): 1737-1747.
  15. Geron, C., A. Guenther, T. Sharkey, and R. R. Arnts, 2000. Temporal variability in basal isoprene emission factor, Tree Physiology, 20(12): 799-805.
  16. Gonzalez Abad, G., X. Liu, K. Chance, H. Wang, T. P. Kurosu, and R. Suleiman, 2015. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 8(1): 19-32.
  17. Gupta, P. and S. A. Christopher, 2009. Particulate matter air quality assessment using integrated surface, satellite and meteorological products: Multiple regression approach, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114(D14).
  18. Heikes, B., J. Snow, P. Egli, D. O'Sullivan, J. Crawford, J. Olson, G. Chen, D. Davis, N. Blake, and D. Blake, 2001. Formaldehyde over the central Pacific during PEM-Tropics B, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D23): 32717-32731.
  19. Holzinger, R., C. Warneke, A. Hansel, A. Jordan, W. Lindinger, D. H. Scharffe, G. Schade, and P. J. Crutzen, 1999. Biomass burning as a source of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and hydrogen cyanide, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(8): 1161-1164.
  20. Jeong, J. I. and R. J. Park, 2013. Effects of the meteorological variability on regional air quality in East Asia, Atmospheric Environment, 69: 46-55.
  21. Justice, C., J. Townshend, E. Vermote, E. Masuoka, R. Wolfe, N. Saleous, D. Roy, and J. Morisette, 2002. An overview of MODIS Land data processing and product status, Remote Sensing of Environment, 83(1-2): 3-15.
  22. Kim, W., H. Lee, J. Kim, U. Jeong, and J. Kweon, 2012. Estimation of seasonal diurnal variations in primary and secondary organic carbon concentrations in the urban atmosphere: EC tracer and multiple regression approaches, Atmospheric Environment, 56: 101-108.
  23. Lee, M., B. G. Heikes, D. J. Jacob, G. Sachse, and B. Anderson, 1997. Hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxide, and formaldehyde as primary pollutants from biomass burning, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D1): 1301-1309.
  24. Li, X., T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, K. Lu, Y. Li, M. Shao, T. Wagner, and A. Wahner, 2013. MAX-DOAS measurements of $NO_2$, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(4): 2133-2151.
  25. Marais, E. A., D. J. Jacob, T. Kurosu, K. Chance, J. Murphy, C. Reeves, G. Mills, S. Casadio, D. Millet, and M. P. Barkley, 2012. Isoprene emissions in Africa inferred from OMI observations of formaldehyde columns, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(14): 6219-6235.
  26. Marais, E. A., D. Jacob, A. Guenther, K. Chance, T. Kurosu, J. Murphy, C. Reeves, and H. Pye, 2014. Improved model of isoprene emissions in Africa using OMI satellite observations of formaldehyde: implications for oxidants and particulate matter, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14(5): 6951-6979.
  27. Martin, R., D. Parrish, T. Ryerson, D. Nicks, K. Chance, T. Kurosu, D. Jacob, E. Sturges, A. Fried, and B. Wert, 2004. Evaluation of GOME satellite measurements of tropospheric $NO_2$ and HCHO using regional data from aircraft campaigns in the southeastern United States, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D24).
  28. Matsushita, B., W. Yang, J. Chen, Y. Onda, and G. Qiu, 2007. Sensitivity of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to topographic effects: a case study in high-density cypress forest, Sensors, 7(11): 2636-2651.
  29. Michael H. K., C. J. Nachtsheim, J. Neter, and W. Li, 2005. Applied Linear Regression Models (Vol. 5), McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY, USA.
  30. Lamsal, L., R. Martin, D. D. Parrish, and N. A. Krotkov, 2013. Scaling relationship for $NO_2$ pollution and urban population size: A satellite perspective, Environmental Science & Technology, 47(14): 7855-7861.
  31. Millet, D. B., D. J. Jacob, K. F. Boersma, T. M. Fu, T. P. Kurosu, K. Chance, C. L. Heald, and A. Guenther, 2008. Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column measurements by the OMI satellite sensor, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).
  32. Palmer, P. I., D. S. Abbot, T. M. Fu, D. J. Jacob, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, A. Guenther, C. Wiedinmyer, J. C. Stanton, and M. J. Pilling, 2006. Quantifying the seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions using satellite observations of the formaldehyde column, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D12).
  33. Park, R. J., D. J. Jacob, B. D. Field, R. M. Yantosca, and M. Chin, 2004. Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D15).
  34. Qing Liu, H. and A. Huete, 1995. A feedback based modification of the NDVI to minimize canopy background and atmospheric noise, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 33(2): 457-465.
  35. Seco, R., J. Penuelas, and I. Filella, 2007. Short-chain oxygenated VOCs: Emission and uptake by plants and atmospheric sources, sinks and concentrations, Atmospheric Environment, 41(12): 2477-2499.
  36. Sellke, T., M. J. Bayarri, and J. O. Berger, 2001. Calibration of ${\rho}$ values for testing precise null hypotheses, The American Statistician, 55(1): 62-71.
  37. Shim, C., Y. Wang, Y. Choi, P. I. Palmer, D. S. Abbot, and K. Chance, 2005. Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde column measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D24).
  38. Singh, H., L. Salas, R. Chatfield, E. Czech, A. Fried, J. Walega, M. Evans, B. Field, D. Jacob, and D. Blake, 2004. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D15).
  39. Stavrakou, T., J.-F. Muller, I. D. Smedt, M. V. Roozendael, G. van der Werf, L. Giglio, and A. Guenther, 2009. Evaluating the performance of pyrogenic and biogenic emission inventories against one decade of space-based formaldehyde columns, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(3): 1037-1060.
  40. Timm, N. H., 2002. Applied Multivariate Analysis: Springer Texts in Statistics, Springer-Verlag New York, NY, USA.
  41. Vrekoussis, M., F. Wittrock, A. Richter, and J. Burrows, 2010. GOME-2 observations of oxygenated VOCs: what can we learn from the ratio glyoxal to formaldehyde on a global scale?, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(21): 10145-10160.
  42. Witte, J. C., B. N. Duncan, A. R. Douglass, T. P. Kurosu, K. Chance, and C. Retscher, 2011. The unique OMI HCHO/$NO_2$ feature during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: Implications for ozone production sensitivity, Atmospheric Environment, 45(18): 3103-3111.
  43. Xu, J., X. Jia, X. Lou, G. Xi, J. Han, and Q. Gao, 2007. Selective detection of HCHO gas using mixed oxides of ZnO/ZnSnO3, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 120(2): 694-699.
  44. Yokelson, R. J., J. G. Goode, D. E. Ward, R. A. Susott, R. E. Babbitt, D. D. Wade, I. Bertschi, D. W. Griffith, and W. M. Hao, 1999. Emissions of formaldehyde, acetic acid, methanol, and other trace gases from biomass fires in North Carolina measured by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104(D23): 30109-30125.