The Effect of Nurse Work Environment and Reciprocity on Job Embeddedness in the Small and Medium Sized Hospital Nurses

중소병원 간호사의 간호근무환경과 호혜성이 직무배태성에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Kyung-Im (Dept. of Nursing Science, Chunnam Techno University) ;
  • Kim, Eun-A (Dept. of Nursing Science, Dongshin University)
  • 박경임 (전남과학대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 김은아 (동신대학교 간호학과)
  • Received : 2019.06.03
  • Accepted : 2019.08.20
  • Published : 2019.08.28


The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nursing work environment and reciprocity on job embeddedness in the small and medium size hospital nurses. The data were collected from questionnaires filled out by 206 nurses. Data collection was performed from March 4 to 22, 2019. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 25.0 program. As a result of the research, the study model accounted for 66.0% of job embeddedness. The most powerful variable affecting job embeddedness was support system of nurse, among sub - variables of nursing work environment. Therefore, nursing managers should improve the nurse's job embeddedness by creating nursing work environment that supports nurses such as salary improvement, professional development and promotion opportunities. In addition, it suggests that improvement of hospital and nursing organization system is needed to maintain cooperative relationship with nursing team or other health care professionals.

Table 1. Degree of job embeddedness by general characteristics of subject

JKOHBZ_2019_v9n8_63_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Level of nurse work environment, reciprocity, job embeddedness

JKOHBZ_2019_v9n8_63_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Relationship among variables

JKOHBZ_2019_v9n8_63_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. Factors influencing job embeddedness

JKOHBZ_2019_v9n8_63_t0004.png 이미지


  1. O. S. Shim & H. J. Lee. (2017). A Comparative Study on the Job Satisfaction, Nursing Professionalism and Nursing Work Environment of Nurses in Comprehensive Nursing Care Service Wards and Nurses in General Wards. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology, 17(6), 25-33. DOI : 10.22156/CS4SMB.2017.7.6.025
  2. H. J. Ko & J. H. Kim. (2016). Relationships among Nursing Work Environment, Job Embeddedness and Turnover Intention in Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 22(3), 279-291. DOI : 10.11111/jkana.2016.22.3.279
  3. Y. M. Park & S. W. Ryu. (2018). Effects of Job Embeddedness and Leader-member Exchange on Organizational Commitment of Clinical Nurses. Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics, 43(1), 105-112. DOI : 10.21032/jhis.2018.43.1.105
  4. K. S. Lee & K. H. Kang. (2018). Influence of Nurses' Followership Types and Ego-Resilience on Job Embeddedness. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 24(2), 127-136. DOI : 10.22650/JKCNR.2018.24.2.127
  5. T. R. Mitchell, B. C, Holtom, T. W. Lee & M. Erez. (2001). Why people stay: Using Job Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1102-1121. DOI : 10.2307/3069391
  6. M. J. Kim, J. W. Lee & J. S. Park. (2017). Effects of Nurses' Practice Environment and Job Embeddedness on Turnover Intention in Medium-small sized Hospital. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 18(1), 222-230. DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2017.18.1.222
  7. K. H. Kang, Y. R. Chae & S. Y. Park. (2018). Job Embeddedness of Korean Clinical Nurses: A Literature Review. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing. 27(3), 139-151. DOI : 10.5807/kjohn.2018.27.3.139
  8. Y. M. Kim & Y. S. Kang. (2013). The Relationship among Career Plateau, Self-efficacy, Job Embeddedness and Turnover Intention of Nurses in Small and Medium Sized Hospitals. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 14(10), 5078-5090. DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.10.5078
  9. S. J. Lee & H. J. Woo. (2015). Structural Relationships among Job Embeddedness, Emotional Intelligence, Social Support and Turnover Intention of Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 21(1), 32-42. DOI : 10.11111/jkana.2015.21.1.32
  10. L. H. Aiken, D. S. Havens & D. M. Sloane. (2009). The Magnet Nursing Services Recognition Program: a comparison of two groups of magnet hospitals. Journal of Nursing Administration, 100(3), 26-35. DOI : 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181aeb469
  11. M. Y. Han, M. S. Lee, J. Y. Bae & Y. S. Kim. (2015). Effects of Nursing Practice Environment, Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction on Burnout in Clinical Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 21(2), 193-202. DOI : 10.11111/jkana.2015.21.2.193
  12. H. Y. Jung & M. H. Sung. (2014). Relationships among Work Environment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention of Nurses in an Emergency Department. Journal of East-West Nursing Research. 20(1), 29-36. DOI : 10.14370/jewnr.2014.20.1.29
  13. K. J. Hong. (2018). Effects of Effort-reward Imbalance on Satisfaction with Working Condition and Health of Registered Nurses. Doctoral dissertation. Seoul National University, Seoul.
  14. Y. J. Ko. (2019). Development and Evaluation of Nursing Work Environment Scale of Clinical Nurses(NWES-CN). Doctoral dissertation. Hanyang University, Seoul.
  15. R. J. Jang, Y. S. Kang. & Y. M. Kim. (2016). The Relationships in Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Quality of Nursing Service in Hospital Nurses. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 17(6). 326-337. DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.6.326
  16. M. A. Lee & E. J. Kim. (2016). Influences of Hospital Nurses' perceived reciprocity and Emotional Labor on Quality of Nursing Service and Intent to Leave. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 46(3), 364-374. DOI : 10.4040/jkan.2016.46.3.364
  17. H. S. An. (2017). Effects of Pediatric Nurses' Burnout on Job Satisfaction : Focused on the Mediating Effect Reciprocity. Master Thesis. Kyungpook National University, Daegu.
  18. S. E. Choi & S. D. Kim. (2013). Relationships of Fatigue to Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among Clinical Nurses at Small & Medium-Sized Hospitals. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 14(9). 4218-4226. DOI : 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.9.4218
  19. A. Barr& P. Serneel. (2008). Reciprocity in the Workplace. Experimental Economics, 12(1), 99-112. 2008. DOI : 10.1007/s10683-008-9202-8
  20. G. P. A. Yen-Patton. (2012). Nurse and Nursing Assistant Reciprocal Caring in Long Term Care: Outcomes of Absenteeism, Retention, Turnover and Quality of Care. Doctoral dissertation. The University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA.
  21. J. H. Kim. (2009). The Effects of Job Embededness on Turnover Intention and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Hospital Employee - Focusing on Moderating Effect of Personality Traits. Doctoral dissertation. Kyungsung University, Busan.
  22. E. T. Lake. (2002). Development of the practice environment scale of the nursing work index. Research in Nursing & Health. 25(3), 176-188. DOI : 10.1002/nur.10032
  23. E. T. Lake & C. R. Friese. (2006). Variations in Nursing Practice Environments Relation to Staffing and Hospital Characteristics. Nursing Research. 55(1), 1-9. DOI : 10.1097/00006199-200601000-00001
  24. J. K. Kim, M. J. Kim, S. Y. Kim, M. Yu & K. A. Lee. (2014). Effects of General Hospital Nurses' Work Environment on Job Embeddedness and Burnout. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 20(1), 69-81. DOI : 10.11111/jkana.2014.20.1.69
  25. J. Y. Lee & H. R. Nam. (2016). Effects of Work Environment, Organizational Culture and Demands at Work on Emotional Labor in Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 22(2), 119-128. DOI : 10.11111/jkana.2016.22.2.119
  26. H. W. Choi. (2016). The Effects of Nursing Practice Environment and Psychological Capital on Job Embeddedness among Clinical Nurses. Master Thesis. Chung-Ang University, Seoul.
  27. S. H. Lee. (2018). Effect of Burnout, Verbal Abuse Experience, and Social Support on Job Embeddedness in the Small and Medium Sized Hospital Nurses. Journal of Digital Convergence, 16(12), 477-487. DOI : 10.14370/jewnr.2014.20.1.29
  28. I. S. Cheon. (2018). The Effects of Communication Competency and Job embeddedness on Nursing Performance in Small and Medium-sized Hospitals. Master Thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul.
  29. J. M. Kang & J. O. Kwon. (2017). A Convergence Study about Influences of Trust in Supervisor, Customer badness behavior, Turnover Intention behavior on Job Embeddedness in Clinical Nurses. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 8(7), 113-122. DOI : 10.15207/JKCS.2017.8.7.113