Determination of niacin profiles in some animal and plant based foods by high performance liquid chromatography: association with healthy nutrition

  • Catak, Jale (Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University)
  • Received : 2019.02.07
  • Accepted : 2019.04.04
  • Published : 2019.05.31


Vitamin $B_3$ (niacin) is essential for all living cells and plays a central role in energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Vitamin $B_3$, a water-soluble vitamin, is present in the form of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, a monocarboxylic acid derivative of pyridine. While nicotinic acid is commonly effective in lowering cholesterol levels, unlike nicotinic acid, nicotinamide is ineffective on lipids. Presence rates of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which are the available forms of vitamin $B_3$, are different for each food. However, the studies in the literature are generally based on the analysis of total amount of vitamin $B_3$ in foods and the studies determining the profile of vitamin $B_3$ in foods are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the vitamin $B_3$ profiles of 10 kinds of animal based food and 10 different plant based food samples. In this study, 10 kinds of animal based food samples consisting of veal (veal steak fillet), chicken (breast), turkey meat (thigh), goat meat (leg, belly), lamb (leg, back, arm), mutton (belly), bovine meat (loin) and 10 different plant based food samples namely; barley, rye, wheat (bread), wheat (durum), oat, rice, dried pea, green lentil, red lentil and chickpea were studied by high performance liquid chromatography using post-column derivatization system. The presence rates of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were determined in the meat samples as 30% and 70% and as 87% and 13% in the cereal and legume samples, respectively. Nicotinic acid levels were found in low amounts in the meat samples. The amounts of nicotinic acid in the cereal and legume samples were significantly higher than the meat samples. Consequently, the plant based foods such as cereals and legumes, with a ratio of 87% nicotinic acid presence, standout as the best source of nicotinic acid and encouraging regular intake of those cereals and legumes containing rich nicotinic acid would remove nicotinic acid deficiency in human.


Animal based foods;Niacin;Nicotinamide;Nicotinic acid;Plant based foods;Vitamin $B_3$ profiles


  1. Sauve AA. NAD+ and vitamin B3: from metabolism to therapies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324: 883-93.
  2. Ndaw S, Bergaentzle M, Aoude-Werner D, Hasselmann C. Enzymatic extraction procedure for the liquid chromatographic determination of niacin in foodstuffs. Food Chem. 2002;78:129-34.
  3. Gehring W. Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004;3:88-93.
  4. Meyer-Ficca M. Niacin. Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute. Accessed 7 Dec 2018.
  5. Nelson DL, Cox MM. Lehninger principles of biochemistry. 5th ed. New York, NY: Freeman and Company; 2008.
  6. Kirkland JB. Niacin and carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46:110-8.
  7. Pollak N, Dolle C, Ziegler M. The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides-small molecules with a multitude of functions. Biochem J. 2007;402:205-18.
  8. Bellows L, Moore R. Water-soluble vitamins: B-complex and vitamin C. Food and Nutrition Series: Health. 2012;9:312.
  9. Krehl WA, Teply LJ, Sarma PS, Elvehjem CA. Growth-retarding effect of corn in nicotinic acid-low rations and its counteraction by tryptophane. Science. 1945;101:489-90.
  10. Schellack N. B-complex vitamin deficiency and supplementation: review. S Afr Pharm J. 2015;82:28-33.
  11. Fukuwatari T, Shibata K. Effect of nicotinamide administration on the tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway in humans. Int Jvitam Nutr Res. 2007;77:255-62.
  12. Altschul R, Hoffer A, Stephen JD. Influence of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol in man. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1955;54:558-9.
  13. Parsons WB. Treatment of hypercholesteremia by nicotinic acid progress report with review of studies regarding mechanism of action. Arch Intern Med. 1961;107:639-52.
  14. Osmond H, Hoffer A. Massive niacin treatment in schizophrenia. Review of a nine year study. Lancet.1962;279:316-20.
  15. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, Stamler J, Friedman L, Prineas RJ, et al. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;8:1245-55.
  16. Capuzzi DM, Morgan JM, Brusco OA Jr, Intenzo CM. Niacin dosing: relationship to benefits and adverse effects. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2000;2:64-71.
  17. Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Mechanism of action of niacin on lipoprotein metabolism. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2000;2:36-46.
  18. Carlson LA. Niaspan, the prolonged release preparation of nicotinic acid (niacin), the broad-spectrum lipid drug. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:706-13.
  19. Marcus R, Coulston AM. Water-soluble vitamins. The vitamin B complex and ascorbic acid. In: Goodman LS, Gliman AG, Rall TW, Murad F, editors. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1996. p. 1555-71.
  20. Jacob RA, Swenseid ME. Niacin. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, editors. Present knowledge in nutrition. 7th ed. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.; 1996. p. 185-90.
  21. Gregory JF 3rd. Nutritional properties and significance of vitamin glycosides. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:277-96.
  22. Wall JS, Carpenter KJ. Variation in availability of niacin in grain products. Food Technol. 1988;198-204.
  23. Kirby RW, Anderson JW, Sieling B, Rees ED, Chen WJ, Miller RE, et al. Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:824-9.
  24. Mclntosh GH, Whyt J, McArthur R, Nestel PJ. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1205-9.
  25. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Faulkner DA, Nguyen T, Kemp T, Marchie A. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:582-91.
  26. Shamliyan TA, Jacobs DR Jr, Raatz SK, Nordstrom DL, Keenan JM. Are your patients with risk of CVD getting the viscous soluble fiber they need? Few patients eat the right amount of fiber known to reduce CVD risks and events. J Fam Pract. 2006;55761-70.
  27. Chen ZY, Jiao R, Ma KY. Cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals and functional foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:8761-73.
  28. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed 7 Dec 2018.
  29. Sinclair A, Mann N, O'Connell S. The nutrient composition of Australian beef and lamb. Melbourne: RMIT; 1999.
  30. Williams P. Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutr Diet. 2007;64:S113-9.
  31. Hasan MN, Akhtaruzzaman M, Sultan MZ. Estimation of vitamins B-complex (B2, B3, B5 and B6) of some leafy vegetables indigenous to Bangladesh by HPLC method. JASMI. 2013;3:24-9.
  32. Dawson KR, Unklesbay NF, Hedrick HB. HPLC determination of riboflavin, niacin, and thiamin in beef, pork, and lamb after alternate heat-processing methods. J Agric Food Chem. 1988;36:1176-9.
  33. Vidal-Valverde C, Reche A. Determination of available niacin in legumes and meat by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 1991;39:116-21.
  34. Agostini TS, Godoy HT. Simultaneous determination of nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine in enriched Brazilian foods by HPLC. J High Resolut Chromatogr. 1997;20: 245-8.
  35. Rose-Sallin C, Blake CJ, Genoud D, Tagliaferri EG. Comparison of microbiological and HPLC-Fluorescence detection methods for determination of niacin in fortified food products. Food Chem. 2001;73:473-80.
  36. Zafra-Gomez A, Garballo A, Morales JC, Garcia-Ayuso LE. Simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in supplemented foods by liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:4531-6.
  37. Lahely S, Bergaentzle M, Hasselmann C. Fluorimetric determination of niacin in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization. Food Chem. 1999;65:129-33.
  38. Ahmad MN. The effect of lentil on cholesterol-induced changes of serum lipid cardiovascular indexes in rats. Prog Nutr. 2017;19:48-56.
  39. USDA. 2018. Wheat, durum. United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database, Basic Report: 20076. Accessed 8 Dec 2018.
  40. TURCOMP. 2018. Wheat, durum. Turkish Food Composition Database. Accessed 8 Dec 2018.