Real-time Spectroscopic Methods for Analysis of Organic Compounds in Water

Kim, Chihoon;Ji, Taeksoo

  • Received : 2019.04.26
  • Accepted : 2019.06.28
  • Published : 2019.08.25


This paper proposes an optical system where the organic compound content in water is determined by using an ultraviolet (UV) LED (280 nm) and photodetector. The results obtained by the proposed prototype LED spectroscopy system, which includes a single photodetector and two parallel sample holders, are calculated by applying partial least square regression; the values are highly correlated with the actual concentrations of potassium hydrogen phthalate solutions, with an adjusted coefficient of determination about 0.996. Moreover, the total organic carbon values derived from the UV-Vis spectrometer of real samples (lake, river and sea water) differed little from those obtained by the LED spectroscopy. We confirm that the fast, sensitive, and compact LED sensor system can be readily configured for real-time monitoring of organic compounds in water.


LED sensor;UV absorbance;Total organic carbon;Spectroscopy;Organic pollution


  1. N. Pasco, K. Baronian, C. Jeffries, and J. Hay, "Biochemical mediator demand-a novel rapid alternative for measuring biochemical oxygen demand," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 53, 613-618 (2000).
  2. Y. W. Kang, M. J. Cho, and K. Y. Hwang, "Correction of hydrogen peroxide interference on standard chemical oxygen demand test," Water Res. 33, 1247-1251 (1999).
  3. I. Bisutti, I. Hilke, and M. Raessler, "Determination of total organic carbon-an overview of current methods," TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 23, 716-726 (2004).
  4. G. R. Peyton, "The free-radical chemistry of persulfate-based total organic carbon analyzers," Mar. Chem. 41, 91-103 (1993).
  5. J. Qian and K. Mopper, "Automated high-performance, high-temperature combustion total organic carbon analyzer," Anal. Chem. 68, 3090-3097 (1996).
  6. Y. Sugimura and Y. Suzuki, "A high-temperature catalytic oxidation method for the determination of non-volatile dissolved organic carbon in seawater by direct injection of a liquid sample," Mar. Chem. 24, 105-131 (1988).
  7. T. Saitoh, H. Nagai, M. Imai, K. Nakajima, and M. Tujimura, "Simultaneous removal of DO and TOC in ultrapure water by using UV rays," Desalination 98, 249-255 (1994).
  8. R. H. Neal and T. Younglove, "The use of a dry combustion infrared instrumental technique to determine total and organic carbon in California soils," Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24, 2733-2746 (1993).
  9. D. Dubber and N. F. Gray, "Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste," J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 45, 1595-1600 (2010).
  10. R. W. Matthews, "An adsorption water purifier with in situ photocatalytic regeneration," J. Catal. 113, 549-555 (1988).
  11. C. Kim, T. Ji, and J. B. Eom, "Determination of organic compounds in water using ultraviolet LED," Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 045802 (2018).
  12. S. A. Abdul-Wahab, C. S. Bakheit, and S. M. Al-Alawi, "Principal component and multiple regression analysis in modelling of ground-level ozone and factors affecting its concentrations," Environ. Modell. Software 20, 1263-1271 (2005).
  13. R. H. Myers, Classical and modern regression with applications, 2nd ed (Duxbury Press, Belmont, CA, 1990).
  14. O. Thomas, H. E. Khorassani, E. Touraud, and H. Bitar, "TOC versus UV spectrophotometry for wastewater quality monitoring," Talanta 50, 743-749 (1999).
  15. P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, R. A. Peura, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, and H. M. Heise, "Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood using partial least-squares and artificial neural networks based on mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1214-1221 (1993).
  16. I. H. Lee, Easy flow regression analysis (Seoul: Hannarae Publishing Co, Korea, 2014), pp. 73-78.
  17. S. Burke, "Regression and calibration," LC-GC Europe Online Supplement statistics and data analysis, 13-18 (2001).


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea