- Volume 3 Issue 4
A hybrid free-space-optical/radio-frequency (FSO/RF) communication system is considered, with the help of amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. We consider various weather conditions to investigate their effects on the system's performance. We begin by obtaining the cumulative distribution function and probability density function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio for the AF dual-hop FSO communication system with RF backup link. Then, these results are used to derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, average bit-error rate, and average ergodic capacity. The results show that the considered system efficiently employs the complementary nature of FSO and RF links, resulting in impressive performance improvements compared to non-hybrid systems.
Free space optical communication;Hybrid FSO/RF communication;Outage probability;bit-error rate;Ergodic capacity
- A. Malik and P. Singh, "Free space optics: current applications and future challenges," Int. J. Opt. 2015, 1-7 (2015).
- W. Lim, "BER analysis of coherent free space optical systems with BPSK over gamma-gamma channels," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19, 237-240 (2015). https://doi.org/10.3807/JOSK.2015.19.3.237
- X. Song, F. Yang, J. Cheng, N. Al-Dhahir, and Z. Xu, "Subcarrier phase shift keying systems with phase errors in lognormal turbulence channels," J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1896-1904 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2015.2398847
- L. Yang, X. Song, J. Cheng, and J. F. Holzman, "Free-space optical communications over lognormal fading channels using OOK with finite extinction ratios," IEEE Access 4, 574-584 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2520936
- G. Yang, Z. Li, M. Bi, X. Zhou, R. Zeng, T. Wang, and J. Li, "Channel modeling and performance analysis of modulating retroreflector FSO systems under weak turbulence conditions," IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1-10 (2017).
- L. Yang, B. Zhu, J. Cheng, and J. F. Holzman, "Free-space optical communications using on-off keying and source information transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 2601-2609 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2016.2542203
- V. Khandelwal, R. Kaushik, and R. C. Jain, "A simple closed form approximation of average channel capacity for weakly turbulent optical wireless links," Wireless Pers. Commun. 95, 2665-2677 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-017-3948-2
- M. A. Esmail, H. Fathallah, and M.-S. Alouini, "On the performance of optical wireless links over random foggy channels," IEEE Access 5, 2894-2903 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2670682
- M. A. Kashani, M. M. Rad, M. Safari, and M. Uysal, "All-optical amplify-and-forward relaying system for atmospheric channels," IEEE Commun. Lett. 16, 1684-1687 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2012.082012.121066
- P. Puri, P. Garg, and M. Aggarwal, "Analysis of spectrally efficient two way relay assisted free space optical systems in atmospheric turbulence with path loss," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 29, 99-112 (2014).
- J. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wang, "Unified performance analysis of mixed radio frequency/free-space optical dual-hop transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 2286-2293 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2015.2409570
- P. V. Trinh, T. C. Thang, and A. T. Pham, "Mixed mmWave RF/FSO relaying systems over generalized fading channels with pointing errors," IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1-14 (2017).
- A. M. Salhab, "A new scenario of triple-hop mixed RF/FSO/RF relay network with generalized order user scheduling and power allocation," EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking 2016, 260 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13638-016-0751-9
- M. Usman, H. C. Yang, and M. S. Alouini, "Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission," in Proc. IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2014-Fall) (Canada, Sept. 2014), pp. 1-5.
- M. Usman, H. C. Yang, and M. S. Alouini, "Practical switching-based hybrid FSO/RF transmission and its performance analysis," IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1-13 (2014).
- N. D. Chatzidiamantis, G. K. Karagiannidis, E. E. Kriezis, and M. Matthaiou, "Diversity combining in hybrid RF/FSO systems with PSK modulation," in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (Japan, Jun. 2011), pp. 1-6.
- T. Rakia, H. C. Yang, M. S. Alouini, and F. Gebali, "Outage analysis of practical FSO/RF hybrid system with adaptive combining," IEEE Commun. Lett. 19, 1366-1369 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2015.2443771
- H. Kazemi, M. Uysal, F. Touati, and H. Haas, "Outage performance of multihop hybrid FSO/RF communication systems," in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW) (Turkey, Sept. 2015), pp. 83-87.
- X. Song and J. Cheng, "Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation in strong atmospheric turbulence," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3484-3493 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2012.2220754
- K. Prabu, S. Cheepalli, and D. S. Kumar, "Analysis of PolSK based FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence with pointing errors," Opt. Commun. 324, 318-323 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2014.03.058
- M. R. Handura, K. M. Ndjavera, C. N. Nyirenda, and T. O. Olwal, "Determining the feasibility of free space optical communication in Namibia," Opt. Commun. 366, 425-430 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2015.12.057
- A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, "Weather effects on FSO network connectivity," J. Opt. Commun. Networking 4, 734-740 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1364/JOCN.4.000734
- T. H. Carbonneau and D. R. Wisely, "Opportunities and challenges for optical wireless: the competitive advantage of free space telecommunications links in today's crowded marketplace," Proc. SPIE 3232, 119-128 (1998).
- M. Abaza, R. Mesleh, A. Mansour, and E.-H. Aggoune, "Performance analysis of miso multi-hop FSO links over log-normal channels with fog and beam divergence attenuations," Opt. Commun. 334, 247-252 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2014.08.050
- S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2007.06109
- E. S. Altubaishi and X. Shen, "Performance analysis of spectrally efficient amplify-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme for adaptive cooperative wireless systems," Wireless Commun. Mobile Computing 15, 1247-1258 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1002/wcm.2397
- M. K. Simon and M. S. Alouini, Digital communication over fading channels (John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA, 2005).
- J. Zhao, S. Zhao, W. Zhao, and K. Chen, "Performance analysis for mixed FSO/RF Nakagami-m and Exponentiated Weibull dual-hop airborne systems," Opt. Commun. 392, 294-299 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2017.01.033
- I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of integrals, series, and products (Academic Press, 2014).
- I. Recommendation, "838-3. specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods," ITU-R Recommendations, P Series Fasicle, ITU, Geneva, Switzerland (2005).
- B. He and R. Schober, "Bit-interleaved coded modulation for hybrid RF/FSO systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57, 3753-3763 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2009.12.080396