Artificial Intelligence In Wheelchair: From Technology for Autonomy to Technology for Interdependence and Care

휠체어 탄 인공지능: 자율적 기술에서 상호의존과 돌봄의 기술로

  • 하대청 (광주과학기술원 기초교육학부)
  • Received : 2019.05.25
  • Accepted : 2019.07.12
  • Published : 2019.07.31

Abstract

This article seeks to explore new relationships and ethics of human and technology by analyzing a cultural imaginary produced by artificial intelligence. Drawing on theoretical reflections of the Feminist Scientific and Technological Studies which understand science and technology as the matter of care(Puig de la Bellacas, 2011), this paper focuses on the fact that artificial intelligence and robots materialize cultural imaginary such as autonomy. This autonomy, defined as the capacity to adapt to a new environment through self-learning, is accepted as a way to conceptualize an authentic human or an ideal subject. However, this article argues that artificial intelligence is mediated by and dependent on invisible human labor and complex material devices, suggesting that such autonomy is close to fiction. The recent growth of the so-called 'assistant technology' shows that it is differentially visualizing the care work of both machines and humans. Technology and its cultural imaginary hide the care work of human workers and actively visualize the one of the machine. And they make autonomy and agency ideal humanness, leaving disabled bodies and dependency as unworthy. Artificial intelligence and its cultural imaginary negate the value of disabled bodies while idealizing abled-bodies, and result in eliminating the real relationship between man and technology as mutually dependent beings. In conclusion, the author argues that the technology we need is not the one to exclude the non-typical bodies and care work of others, but the one to include them as they are. This technology responsibly empathizes marginalized beings and encourages solidarity between fragile beings. Inspired by an art performance of artist Sue Austin, the author finally comes up with and suggests 'artificial intelligence in wheelchair' as an alternative figuration for the currently dominant 'autonomous artificial intelligence'.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. 고학수, 정해빈, 박도현 (2019), 인공지능과 차별, 저스티스, 통권 171호, 199-277쪽.
  2. 로지 브라이도티, 이경란 번역 (2015), 포스트휴먼, 아카넷. [Braidotti, R. (2013), The Posthuman Cambridge: Polity Press.]
  3. 백종현 (2018), 인공지능의 출현과 인간 사회의 변동, 한국포스트휴먼학회 편저, 인공지능과 새로운 규범, 아카넷, 33-80쪽.
  4. 베네딕테 잉스타, 수잔 레이놀스 휘테, 김도현 번역 (1995), 우리가 아는 장애는 없다: 장애에 대한 문화인류학적 접근, 그린비. [Ingstad, B. and Whyte, S. R. eds. (1995), Disability and Culture Berkeley: University of California.]
  5. 수전 웬델, 강진영.김은정.황지성 번역, (2013), 거부당한 몸: 장애와 질병에 대한 여성주의 철학, 그린비. [Wendell, S. (1996), The Rejected Body: Feminist Philosophical Reflections on Disability New York: Routledge.]
  6. 실비아 페데리치, 황성원 번역 (2011), 캘리번과 마녀, 갈무리. [Federici, S. (2004), Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation, Automedia.]
  7. 오요한, 홍성욱 (2018), 인공지능 알고리즘은 사람을 차별하는가, 과학기술학연구, 제18권 3호, 153-215쪽.
  8. 이상욱 (2009), 인공지능의 한계와 일반화된 지능의 가능성: 포스트휴머니즘적 맥락, 과학철학, 제12권 1호, 49-70쪽.
  9. 임소연 (2014), 과학기술의 시대: 사이보그로 살아가기, 생각의 힘.
  10. 전치형 (2017), 포스트휴먼은 어떻게 오는가: 알파고와 사이배슬론 이벤트 분석, 일본 비평, 17호 18-43쪽.
  11. 제리 카플란, 신동숙 번역 (2017), 인공 지능의 미래 한스미디어. [Kaplan, J. (2016), Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press.]
  12. 톰 세익스피어, 이지수 번역 (2013), 장애학의 쟁점: 영국 사회모델의 의미와 한계, 학지사. [Shakespeare, T. (2006), Disability Rights and Wrongs London: Routledge.]
  13. 하대청 (2016), 슈퍼휴먼이 된 장애인: <아바타>, 트랜스휴머니즘, 교정의 명령, 한국포스트휴먼학회 편저, 포스트휴먼 시대의 휴먼, 아카넷.
  14. 하대청 (2017), 웨어러블 자기추적 기술의 배치와 각본: 초연결 시대의 건강과 노동, Asia Pacific Journal of Health Law and Ethics 제 10권 3호, 87-106쪽.
  15. 하대청 (2018), 루프 속의 프레카리아트: 인공지능 속 인간노동과 기술정치, 경제와 사회, 제118호, 277-305쪽.
  16. 한국포스트휴먼학회 편저 (2016), 포스트휴먼 시대의 휴먼, 아카넷.
  17. Asaro, P. M. (2006), "What Should We Want From a Robot Ethics?", International review of information ethics, Vol. 6, pp.9-16.
  18. Austin, S. (2012), "Deep sea diving ... in a wheelchair", Ted Talk. https://www.ted.com/talks/sue_austin_deep_sea_diving_in_a_wheelchair (검색일. 2016년 5월20일).
  19. Carson, J. (2003), "The Culture of Intelligence", in Porter, T. M. and Dorothy R. eds., The Cambridge History of Science Vol. 7, Modern Social Sciences. pp. 635-48, Cambridge University Press.
  20. Choi, T. (2018), "Artificial advancements", The Critical Inquiry https://thenewinquiry.com/artificial-advancements/ (검색일. 2019년 1월 5일).
  21. Collins, H. M. (2012), "Expert systems and the science of knowledge", in Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P., and Pinch, T. eds., The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, pp. 321-340, The MIT Press.
  22. Davis, L. J. (2002), "The end of identity politics and the beginning of dismodernism", Bending Over Backwards: Disability, Dismodernism, other Difficult Positions, pp. 9-32, New York University Press.
  23. Despret, V. (2004), "The Body We Care For: Figures of Anthropo-zoo-genesis", Body & Society, Vol. 10(2-3), pp. 111-134. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X04042938
  24. Erard, M. (2017), "Why Sign-Language Gloves Don't Help Deaf People", The Atlantic https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/11/why-sign-language-gloves-dont-help-deaf-people/545441/ (검색일. 2018년 10월 2일).
  25. Freedman, D. H. (2016), "The War on Stupid People", The Atlantic https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/07/the-war-on-stupid-people/485618/ (검색일. 2018년 10월 2일).
  26. Greenhough, B. and Roe, E. (2010), "From ethical principle to response-able practice", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 43-45. https://doi.org/10.1068/d2706wse
  27. Hamraie, A. and Fritch, K. (2019), "Crip Technoscience Manifesto", Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-34. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010001
  28. Haraway, D. (2008), When Species Meet Minneapolis; London: University of Minnesota Press.
  29. Haraway, D. (2016), Staying With The Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene, Durham: Duke University Press.
  30. Hayles, N. K. (2016), "The Cognitive nonconscious: Enlarging the mind of the Humanities", Critical Inquiry, Vol. 42, No, 4, pp. 783-808. https://doi.org/10.1086/686950
  31. Holt, J. and Vonderau. P. (2015), ""Where the internet lives": Data centers as cloud infrastructure", in Parks, L. and Starosielski, N. eds., Signal Traffic: Critical Studies of Media Infrastructure, pp. 71-93, Urbana; Chicago; Springfield: University of Illinois Press.
  32. Hutchins, E. (1995), "How a Cockpit Remembers Its Speeds", Cognitive Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 265-288. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1903_1
  33. Irani, L. (2015), "Difference and dependence among digital workers: The case of Amazon Mechanical Turk", South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 114, No. 1, pp. 225-234. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-2831665
  34. Jasanoff, S. (2005), Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  35. Latour, B., Porter, C. (trans.) (1993), We Have Never Been Modern, Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press.
  36. Latour, B. (2004), "Why has critique run out of steam? From matter of facts to matters of concern", Critical Inquiry, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 225-248. https://doi.org/10.1086/421123
  37. Latour, B. (2005), Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  38. Martin, A., Myers, N. and Viseu, A. (2017), "The politics of care in technoscience", Social Studies of Science, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 625-641. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312715602073
  39. Mialet, H. (2012), Hawking Incorporated: Stephen Hawking and the Anthropology of the Knowing Subject, Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press.
  40. Nayar, P. K. (2014), Posthumanism, Polity Press.
  41. Newton, C. (2019), "The trauma floor: The secret lives of Facebook moderators in America", The Verge https://www.theverge.com/2019/2/25/18229714/cognizant-facebook-content-moderator-interviews-trauma-working-conditions-arizona (검색일. 2019년 3월2일).
  42. Parks, L. and Starosielski, N. eds., (2015), Signal Traffic: Critical Studies of Media Infrastructure, Urbana; Chicago; Springfield: University of Illinois Press.
  43. Pickering, A. (2002), The Mangle of Practice: Time, Agency, and Science, Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press.
  44. Puig de la Bellacasa, M. (2011), "Matters of care in technoscience: assembling neglected things", Social Studies of Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 85-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312710380301
  45. Russel, S. J. and Novig. P. (2010), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 3rd edition., Pearson Education, Inc.
  46. Shapin S. and Schaffer, S. (1985), Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  47. Starosielski, N. (2015), The Undersea Network, Durham: Duke University Press.
  48. Suchman, L and Weber, J. (2016), "Human-machine autotomies", in Bhutam N., Beck, S., GeiB, R., Liu, H., and KreB C., eds., Autonomous Weapons Systems: Law, Ethics, Policy, pp. 75-102, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  49. Suchman, L. (2007), Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated actions 2nd edition., Cambridge University Press.
  50. Winance, M. (2006), "Trying out the wheelchair: The mutual shaping of people and devices through adjustment", Science, Technology & Human Values, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 52-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243905280023
  51. Wolfe, C. (2010), "Learning from Temple Grandin: Animal Studies, Disability Studies, and Who come after the subject", What is Posthumanism, pp. 127-142, University of Minnesota Press.