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Seasonal Variations of Stream Water Temperature and its Affecting Factors on Mountain Areas

산지계류의 계절적 수온변동 특성 및 영향인자 분석

  • Nam, Sooyoun (Forest Conservation Department, National Institute of Forest Science) ;
  • Choi, Hyung Tae (Forest Conservation Department, National Institute of Forest Science) ;
  • Lim, Honggeun (Forest Conservation Department, National Institute of Forest Science)
  • 남수연 (국립산림과학원 산림보전연구부 산림 육성.복원연구과) ;
  • 최형태 (국립산림과학원 산림보전연구부 산림 육성.복원연구과) ;
  • 임홍근 (국립산림과학원 산림보전연구부 산림 육성.복원연구과)
  • Received : 2019.04.30
  • Accepted : 2019.07.10
  • Published : 2019.07.30

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate mountain stream water and air temperatures, area, latitude, altitude, and forest coverage in headwater catchments located in Kangwon-do, Mid-eastern Korea from 2015 to 2017. Daily mean value of mountain stream water temperature was approximately $6^{\circ}C$ lower than the daily mean value of air temperature on the monitoring sites during the observation period. Monthly mean value of mountain stream water temperature increased with increasing monthly mean value of air temperature from May to August during the observation period. Seasonal variations of mountain stream water temperature were dependent on air temperature rising and falling periods. Correlation analysis was conducted on mountain stream water temperature to investigate its relationship with air temperature, area, latitude, altitude, and forest coverage of air temperature rising and falling periods. The correlation analysis showed that there exists a relationship (Correlation coefficient: -0.581 ~ 0.825; p<0.05), particularly the air temperature showed highest correlation with mountain stream water temperature. Regression equations could be developed due to contribution of air temperature to affect mountain stream water temperature (Correlation coefficient: 0.742 and 0.825; p<0.01). Therefore, a method using various parameters based on air temperature rising and falling periods, could be recommended for predicting mountain stream water temperature.

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Fig. 1. Locations of the mountain stream water temperature monitoring sites.

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Fig. 2. Box plots of monthly distributions of daily mean air and mountain stream water temperatures of the monitoring sites during observed period. The upper and lower hinges correspond to the first and third quartiles(the 25th and 75th percentiles), respectively. The whiskers extend from the hinges to the highest and lowest values that are within 1.5 (the inter-quartile range). Values beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers and plotted as points. Dashed line represents mean value of total daily mean air and mountain stream water temperatures of the monitoring sites during observed period.

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Fig. 3. Daily mean temperature between air and mountain stream water separated to air temperature (a) rising and (b) falling periods.

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Fig. 4. Observed and predicted values of daily mean mountain stream water temperature for evaluating the regression equation located in Jinjeop-Eup, Namyangju-Si.

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Fig. 5. Distributions of observed and predicted values for monthly mean mountain stream water temperature. Thick and broken lines indicated observed and predicted values, respectively.

Table 1. Mountain stream water temperature on the monitoring sites

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Table 2. Daily mean mountain stream water and air temperatures of the monitoring sites during observed period

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Table 3. Correlation analysis between mountain stream water temperature and various parameters of air temperature rising and falling periods.

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Table 4. Regression equation to predict daily mean mountain stream water temperature using parameters of air temperature rising and falling periods.

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