Acidity Enhances the Ability of 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide to Increase Respiration and Lipid Metabolism in Daphnia magna

Han, Chloe;Kottapalli, Aarthi;Boyapati, Keerti;Chan, Sarah;Jeong, Yong-Joo

  • Received : 2018.10.25
  • Accepted : 2019.05.28
  • Published : 2019.08.20


5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), a structural analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), promotes oxidative remodeling in muscle cells. AICAR activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), thus increasing lipid metabolism, respiration, and mitochondrial counts. This process is called oxidative remodeling, which enhances the physical endurance of mice. To test this drug on an invertebrate that is genetically similar to humans, we used the small water crustacean Daphnia magna, which is sensitive to changes in water conditions. We tested the effects of pH on the efficacy of AICAR using two methods. One method measured oxygen consumption of Daphnia in oxygen chambers. The other method determined lipid levels of Daphnia through fluorescent tagging of lipids. The results showed that when exposed to AICAR at pH 6.58, D. magna consumed more oxygen and had lower overall levels of lipids, which is consistent with the expected effects of AICAR, such as increased respiration and lipid metabolism.


5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide;Daphnia magna;pH;Lipid;Respiration