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Deficiency or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α reduces the tissue concentrations of endogenously synthesized docosahexaenoic acid in C57BL/6J mice

Hsiao, Wen-Ting;Su, Hui-Min;Su, Kuan-Pin;Chen, Szu-Han;Wu, Hai-Ping;You, Yi-Ling;Fu, Ru-Huei;Chao, Pei-Min

  • Received : 2019.01.15
  • Accepted : 2019.04.02
  • Published : 2019.08.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), is acquired by dietary intake or the in vivo conversion of ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid. Many enzymes participating in LCPUFA synthesis are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ($PPAR{\alpha}$). Therefore, it was hypothesized that the tissue accretion of endogenously synthesized DHA could be modified by $PPAR{\alpha}$. MATERIALS/METHODS: The tissue DHA concentrations and mRNA levels of genes participating in DHA biosynthesis were compared among $PPAR{\alpha}$ homozygous (KO), heterozygous (HZ), and wild type (WT) mice (Exp I), and between WT mice treated with clofibrate ($PPAR{\alpha}$ agonist) or those not treated (Exp II). In ExpII, the expression levels of the proteins associated with DHA function in the brain cortex and retina were also measured. An n3-PUFA depleted/replenished regimen was applied to mitigate the confounding effects of maternal DHA. RESULTS: $PPAR{\alpha}$ ablation reduced the hepatic Acox, Fads1, and Fads2 mRNA levels, as well as the DHA concentration in the liver, but not in the brain cortex. In contrast, $PPAR{\alpha}$ activation increased hepatic Acox, Fads1, Fads2, and Elovl5 mRNA levels, but reduced the DHA concentrations in the liver, retina, and phospholipid of brain cortex, and decreased mRNA and protein levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain cortex. CONCLUSIONS: LCPUFA enzyme expression was altered by $PPAR{\alpha}$. Either $PPAR{\alpha}$ deficiency or activation-decreased tissue DHA concentration is a stimulus for further studies to determine the functional significance.

Keywords

PPAR alpha;clofibrate;docosahexaenoic acids;brain-derived neurotrophic factor;fatty acid desaturases

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Science and Technology, China Medical University