Fig. 1. Research model
Fig. 2. Modified research model
Table 2. Differences in parental attachment, academic expectation, optimism, and learning flow by general characteristics
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of research variables
Table 3. Correlation coefficients among research variables
Table 4. Factor coefficients of measurement model
Table 5. Path coefficients of Modified model
Table 6. Indirect effect of modified model
Supported by : Sahmyook University
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