DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

WID, GAD or Somewhere Else? A critical analysis of gender in Korea's international education and development

Lee, Ji Min;Yoo, Sung-Sang;Hong, Moon Suk

  • Published : 2019.07.22

Abstract

Over the past few decades, gender equality has been considered one of the fundamental principles and a significant crosscutting issue in international development. However, beyond applying 'gender equality' as a policy buzzword, there has been a lack of critical reviews on how generally 'gender equality in education' is understood and constructed in Korea's development programs and projects. In this regard, this paper explores the use of vocabularies and semantic meanings of gender equality in the Korean Government's Academic Cooperation Program and its 52 projects. By applying mixed contents analysis as a method, the research resulted in several findings: first, the policy papers recently highlighted Korea's directions on gender mainstreaming and gender-sensitive approaches in international development. Second, 'integrating women and girls' into education institutions was emphasized in various projects; third, the term women rather than gender were used in the texts, highlighting their position as a 'marginalized group.' Lastly, there was a lack of evidence of projects dealing with changing gender-based power relations. The constructed gendered relations and powers were identified throughout projects, usually acting as barriers to project activities. However, they were only identified, not challenged, by the program. In conclusion, whilst Korean international development and educational development discourse actively embrace Women in Development (WID) and Gender and Development (GAD) in their programs, it is time to consider the issue of gender equality from different standpoints, such as identity, rights, and capabilities and a more active engagement with Korea's domestic issues in gender discourse and practices is also needed.

Keywords

Korea;East Asian donor;international education and development;women in development (WID);gender in development (GAD);mixed content analysis

References

  1. Bennett, A. (2015). Found in Translation: Combining Discourse Analysis with Computer Assisted Content Analysis, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 43(3), 984-997. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305829815581535
  2. Bettio, F., Verashchagina, A., Mairhuber, I., & Kanjuo-Mrcela, A. (2009). Gender segregation in the labour market: Root causes, implications and policy responses in the EU. Publications Office of the European Union Luxembourg.
  3. Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1987). Discrimination: Empirical Evidence from the United States. The American Economic Review, 77(2), 316-320.
  4. Choi, S. ho, Jung, J. H., & Jung, S. W. (2016). Concept and Procedures of Qualitative Content Analysis. Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 2(1), 127-155
  5. Chung, H. S., Koo, J. H., & Choi, Y. J. (2010). A Research on the Analysis of Gender Inequality in School Textbooks, Seoul: Ministry of Gender Equality & Family.
  6. Collier, D. & Elman, C. (2008). 'Qualitative and Multi-Method Research: Organizations, Publication, and Reflections on Integration', in Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, eds. Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier, Henry Brady, and David Collier (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 780-83.
  7. Danish Centre for Gender, Equality and Diversity (KVINFO). (2018). "KVINFO's view on Gender Equality" in KVINFO Danish Centre for Gender, Equality and Diversity [Online database] Available from [Accessed 23 May 2018]
  8. DeJaeghere, J., & Wiger, N. P. (2013). Gender discourses in an NGO education project: Openings for transformation toward gender equality in Bangladesh. Gender Justice, Education and International Development: Theory, Policy and Practice, 33(6), 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2013.02.002
  9. French Development Agency (AFD). (2014). Methodology guide to the "sustainable development opinion" mechanism [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  10. Global Education Cluster. (2010). The Joint Education Needs Assessment Toolkit. [Online database] Available from [Assessed 19 June 2018]
  11. Hong S. and Jeong, W. (2017) Problematizing Human Rights in International Development: Implications for SDGs Discourse, Paper Presented at the 2017 Korea Association of International Development (KAIDEC)
  12. Jacobs, J. A. (1996). Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(1), 153-185. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153
  13. Jaquette, J. S. (1982). Women and Modernization Theory: A Decade of Feminist Criticism. World Politics, 34(2), 267-284. https://doi.org/10.2307/2010265 https://doi.org/10.2307/2010265
  14. Jaquette, J. S., & Summerfield, G. (2006). Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization. Duke University Press.
  15. Jayaweera, S. (1997). Women, Education and Empowerment in Asia. Gender & Education, 9(4), 411-424. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540259721169 https://doi.org/10.1080/09540259721169
  16. Joshi, G. P., & Anderson, J. (1994). Female Motivation in the Patriarchal School: an analysis of primary textbooks and school organisation in Nepal, and some strategies for change. Gender and Education, 6(2), 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954025940060206 https://doi.org/10.1080/0954025940060206
  17. Jung, K,. Chung, H., Shin, D. & Seo, H. (2003). The study to solve gender gap in middle school science, Korean Women's Development Institute Research report, 14, 314.
  18. Jung, K,. Chung, H. & Kwon, O. (2004). The study to solve gender gap in middle school mathematics, Korean Women's Development Institute Research report RRE 2011-3-4.
  19. Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women's Empowerment. Development and Change, 30(3), 435-464. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00125 https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00125
  20. Kagoda, A. M. (2011). Assessing the effectiveness of affirmative action on women's leadership and participation in education sector in Uganda. In Gender Equality in Education: Looking Beyond Parity, An IIEP Evidence-based Policy Forum (pp. 3-4).
  21. Koczberski, G. (1998). Women in development: A critical analysis. Third World Quarterly, 19(3), 395-410. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436599814316 https://doi.org/10.1080/01436599814316
  22. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2012a). Guidebook of International Development Cooperation Program through Partnership with University [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  23. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2012b). Guidance of International Development Cooperation Program through Partnership with University [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  24. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2014). KOICA Gender Tool-kit [Online database] Available from [Accessed 14 June 2018]
  25. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2015a). Partnering with KOICA [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  26. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2015b). Guidebook of 2016 Public Private Partnership Program I - Principles and Criteria - [Online database] Available from [Accessed 14 June 2018]
  27. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2016a). KOICA Brochure (2016) [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  28. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2016b). Guidebook of 2017 Public Private Partnership Subsidy Program (2016) [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  29. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2017a). Guidebook of 2018 MOFA Public Private Partnership Subsidy Program [Online database] Available from [Accessed 15 June 2018]
  30. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2017b). Presentation Packet of 2018 Public Private Partnership Subsidy Program [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  31. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (2018). Guidebook of 2019 Civil Society Cooperation [Online database] Available from [Accessed 15 June 2018]
  32. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). (in press). Evaluation of Civil Society Cooperation Program and Study on Improving the Operating Scheme, Seongnam: Korea International Cooperation Agency
  33. Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology / Klaus Krippendorff. (3rd ed..). Los Angeles ; London: SAGE.
  34. Leach, F. E. (2003). Practising Gender Analysis in Education. Oxfam.
  35. Liberman, E. (2005). 'Nested Analysis as a Mixed Method Strategy for Comparative Research', American Political Science Review, 99(3), 435-52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055405051762
  36. Masanja, V. G. (2010). Increasing women's participation in science, mathematics and technology education and employment in Africa. In United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women: Expert group meeting: Gender, science, and technology. Butare, Huye, Rwanda: National University of Rwanda & University of Dar es Salaam.
  37. Miller, C., & Razavi, S. (1995). From WID to GAD: Conceptual shifts in the women and development discourse (Working Paper No. 1). UNRISD Occasional Paper. Retrieved from https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/148819
  38. Moghadam, V. M., & Senftova, L. (2005). Measuring women's empowerment: participation and rights in civil, political, social, economic, and cultural domains. International Social Science Journal, 57(184), 389-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2451.2005.00557.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2451.2005.00557.x
  39. Morley, L. (2005a). Gender equity in Commonwealth higher education. Women's Studies International Forum, 28(2), 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2005.04.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2005.04.008
  40. Morley, L. (2005b). Sounds, silences and contradictions: Gender equity in British commonwealth higher education. Australian Feminist Studies, 20(46), 109-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/0816464042000334573 https://doi.org/10.1080/0816464042000334573
  41. Morley, L., & Crossouard, B. (2015). Women in higher education leadership in South Asia: Rejection, refusal, reluctance, revisioning.
  42. Moser, C. (1989). Gender planning in the third world: Meeting practical and strategic gender needs. World Development, 17(11), 1799-1825. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(89)90201-5 https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(89)90201-5
  43. Moser, C. (1993). Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training. London, GBR: Routledge. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/alltitles/docDetail.action?docID=10060589
  44. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2016). Handbook on the OECD-DAC Gender Equality Policy Marker [Online database] Available from [Accessed 16 June 2018]
  45. Rathgeber, E. M. (1990). WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice. The Journal of Developing Areas, 24(4), 489-502.
  46. Sen, A. (2001). Development as Freedom. OUP Oxford.
  47. Singh, J. K. (2008). Whispers of change: Female staff numbers in commonwealth universities. Association of Commonwealth University (ACU).
  48. Small, M. (2011). 'How to Conduct a Mixed Methods Study: Recent Trends in a Rapidly Growing Literature', Annual Review of Sociology, 37(2011), 57-86. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102657
  49. So Sim Bae, Gyeong Sug Kim, Yong Sin Won, Mi Hye Cho, & Jeong Ae You. (2005). An Analysis of Females and Males' Perception, Experiences and Needs toward Elementary Physical Education Classes. Korean Journal of Sport Pedagogy, 12(1), 115-138.
  50. Solheim, E. 2014. Mainstreaming cross-cutting issues: 7 Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews. OECD, Paris, France. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/dac/peerreviews/ Final%20publication%20version%20of%20the%207%20Lessons%20mainstreaming%20cross%20cutting%20issues.pdf
  51. Sperling, G. B., & Winthrop, R. (2015). What Works in Girls' Education: Evidence for the World's Best Investment. Brookings Institution Press.
  52. Subrahmanian, R. (2005). Gender equality in education: Definitions and measurements. International Journal of Educational Development, 25(4), 395-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2005.04.003 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2005.04.003
  53. Thomas, M. A. M., & Rugambwa, A. (2011). Equity, Power, and Capabilities: Constructions of Gender in a Tanzanian Secondary School. Feminist Formations, 23(3), 153-175. https://doi.org/10.1353/ff.2011.0030 https://doi.org/10.1353/ff.2011.0030
  54. UNDP. (2001). Learning & Information Pack: Gender Analysis. January.
  55. UNESCO. (2016) Education 2030 Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all, France: UNESCO [Online database] Available from
  56. UNESCO. (2018) Global Education Monitoring Report Gender Review: Meeting our commitments to gender equality in education [Online database] Available from [Accessed 24 May 2018]
  57. UNESCO and UNICEF. (2012) Asia-Pacific End of Decade Notes on Education for All EFA goal 5: gender equality [Online database] Available from [Accessed 10 July 2018]
  58. Unterhalter, E. (2005). Fragmented frameworks? Researching women, gender, education and development. Beyond Access: Transforming Policy and Practice for Gender Equality in Education, 15-35.
  59. Unterhalter, E. (2006). Gender, education and development. C. Skelton, B. Francis, & l. Smulyan (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Gender and Education, 93-108.
  60. Unterhalter, E. (2007). Gender, Schooling and Global Social Justice. Psychology Press.
  61. Vimala, R. (2010). Gender issues in higher education, Advocacy brief. Bangkok: UNESCO.
  62. Williams, J. (2001). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. Oxford University Press.