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Effects of Muscle Activation Pattern and Stability of the Lower Extremity's Joint on Falls in the Elderly Walking -Half a Year Prospective Study-

노인 보행 시 하지 근 활동 양상과 관절의 안정성이 낙상에 미치는 영향 -전향적 연구(Prospective Study)-

  • Ryu, Ji-Seon (Department of Health and Exercise Science, Korea National Sport University)
  • Received : 2019.06.11
  • Accepted : 2019.06.17
  • Published : 2019.06.30

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the peak torques of the knee and ankle joint and local stability of the lower extremity's joints, and muscle activation patterns of the lower extremity's muscles between fallers and non-fallers in the elderly women during walking. Method: Four elderly women (age: $74.5{\pm}5.2yrs.$; height: $152.1{\pm}5.6cm$; mass: $55.3{\pm}5.4kg$; preference walking speed: $1.19{\pm}0.06m/s$) who experienced falls within six months since experiment had been conducted (falls group) and thirty-six subjects ($74.2{\pm}3.09yrs.$; height: $153.6{\pm}4.9cm$; mass: $56.7{\pm}6.4kg$; preference walking speed: $1.24{\pm}0.10m/s$) who had no experience in falls (non-falls group) within this periods participated in this study. They were measured torque peaks of the knee and ankle joint using a Human Norm and while they were walking on a treadmill at their natural pace, kinematic variables and EMG signals were collected with using a 3-D motion capture system and a wireless EMG system, respectively. Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was determined to observe the dynamic local stability of the lower extremity's joints, and muscles activation and their co-contraction index were also analysed from EMG signals. Hypotheses between falls and non-falls group were tested using paired t-test and Mann-Whitey. Level of significance was set at p<.05. Results: Local dynamic stability in the adduction-abduction movement of the knee joint was significantly lower in falling group than non-falling group (p<.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, muscles which act on the abduction-adduction movement of the knee joint need to be strengthened to prevent from potential falls during walking. However, a small number of samples for fallers make it difficult to generalize the results of this study.

Keywords

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Figure 1. Scene of experiment for strength (left) and gait test (right).

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Figure 2. Example of 3-dimensional hip (top), knee (middle), and ankle joint (lower) for an individual of the fallers.

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Figure 3. Example of raw EMG (top), rectified EMG (middle), filtered EMG signals (lower) of BF, RF, AT, GA for an individual of nonfallers.

Table 1. Peak torque of the knee and ankle joints and their statistic test results between falls and non-falls group

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Table 2. LyE values of the ankle, knee, and hip joint and their statistic test results between falls and non-falls group

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Table 3. Peak torque of the knee and ankle joints and their statistic test results between falls and non-falls group

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

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