Probabilistic Kinematic Analysis of Rock Slope Stability Using Terrestrial LiDAR

지상라이다를 이용한 확률론적 해석기법 기반의 운동학적 안정성 해석

  • 홍석권 (세종대학교 지구정보공학과) ;
  • 박혁진 (세종대학교 지구정보공학과)
  • Received : 2019.02.07
  • Accepted : 2019.04.04
  • Published : 2019.06.28


Kinematic analysis determines the stability of rock slope by analyzing the relationship between the slope face orientation and the discontinuity orientation. In this study, terrestrial LiDAR was used to obtain a large amount of discontinuity orientation data and then, the probabilistic characteristics of the orientation data obtained using terrestrial LiDAR were analyzed. Subsequently, the probabilistic kinematic analysis was carried out using the discontinuity orientations generated randomly from Fisher function in Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the probabilistic kinematic analysis was also performed using the actual orientation data obtained from the terrestrial LiDAR to compare their results. Consequently, the results of both probabilistic analyses showed similar results. Therefore, if sufficient orientation data are provided by other means such as terrestrial LiDAR, the probabilistic analysis will show reasonable results using the actual field data without randomly generating orientation data. In addition, the deterministic kinematic analysis was also carried out using representative orientation of discontinuity sets. The analysis result of the probabilistic analysis showed similar results with the deterministic analysis because the dispersion of the discontinuity orientations in a joint set is not large.


discontinuity;uncertainty;kinematic analysis;probabilistic analysis;terrestrial LiDAR

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Flowchart for point cloud acquisition using Terrestrial LiDAR.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 3. Scanning positions and point cloud acquired from various scanning positions.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 4. Modes of rock slope failure. (a) plane failure, (b) wedge failure (modified from Norrish and Wyllie, 1996).

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 5. Location of study area and picture of the rock slope in the study area.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0005.png 이미지

Fig. 6. Acquisition process of discontinuity orientation data. (a) picture of the rock slope, (b) selected points from the point cloud, (c) generated plane data from point cloud.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0006.png 이미지

Fig. 7. Stereonet plots of data. (a) all discontinuity data, (b) three joint sets.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0007.png 이미지

Fig. 8. Results of probabilistic analysis for plane failure using randomly generated discontinuity orientation using Fisher distribution function. (a) joint1, (b) joint2, (c) joint3.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0008.png 이미지

Fig. 9. Results of probabilistic analysis for wedge failure using randomly generated discontinuity orientation using Fisher distribution function. (a) joint1&joint2, (b) joint1&joint3, (c) joint2&joint3.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0009.png 이미지

Fig. 10. Results of probabilistic analysis for plane failure using real discontinuity orientation data. (a) joint1, (b) joint2, (c) joint3.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0010.png 이미지

Fig. 11. Results of probabilistic analysis for wedge failure using real discontinuity orientation data. (a) joint1&joint2, (b) joint1&joint3, (c) joint2&joint3.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0011.png 이미지

Fig. 12. Results of deterministic analysis using representative discontinuity orientation data. (a) plane failure, (b) wedge failure.

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_f0012.png 이미지

Fig. 2. (a) picture of the rock slope in the study area, (b) point cloud acquired using terrestrial LiDAR, (c) occlusion area of slope face.

Table 1. Specifications of terrestrial LiDAR that used in this study

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Representative geometrical properties of discontinuity sets

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Kinematic analysis result of deterministic analysis and probabilistic analysis and using original data

JOHGB2_2019_v52n3_231_t0003.png 이미지


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Hoek, E. and Bray, J.W. (1981) Rock slope engineering. Inst. Mining and metallurgy, London, 360p.
  2. Admassu, Y. and Shakoor, A. (2013) DIPANALYST: a computer program for quantitative kinematic analysis of rock slope failures. Computers & geosciences, v.54, p.196-202.
  3. Choi, H.M., Shim, S.H., Han, B.H. and Kim, J.K. (2003) A case of reinforcement and failure of rock by alternation of sandstone and shale. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics 2003 Spring Conference, p.135-143.
  4. Fisher, R.A. (1953) Dispersion on a sphere. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, v.217, p.295-305.
  5. Francioni, M., Salvini, R., Stead, D., Giovannini, R., Riccucci, S., Vanneschi, C. and Gullì, D. (2015) An integrated remote sensing-GIS approach for the analysis of an open pit in the Carrara marble district, Italy: Slope stability assessment through kinematic and numerical methods. Computers and Geotechnics, v.67, p.46-63.
  6. Francioni, M., Salvini, R., Stead, D. and Coggan, J. (2018) Improvements in the integration of remote sensing and rock slope modelling. Natural hazards, v.9, p.975-1004.
  7. Giasi, C.I., Masi, P. and Cherubini, C. (2003) Probabilistic and fuzzy reliability analysis of a sample slope near Aliano. Engineering Geology, v.67, p.391-402.
  8. Gokceoglu, C., Sonmez, H. and Ercanoglu, M. (2000) Discontinuity controlled probabilistic slope failure risk maps of the Altindag (settlement) region in Turkey. Engineering Geology, v.55, p.277-296.
  9. Kim, C.H. and Kemeny, J. (2009) Automatic Extraction of Fractures and Their Characteristics in Rock Masses by LIDAR System and the Split-FX Software. Tunnel and Underground Space, v.19, p.1-10.
  10. Lee, S.H. (2005) A study on measurement of rock slope joint using 3D image processing. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers, v.25, p.79-84.
  11. Norrish, N.I. and Wyllie, D.C. (1996) Rock slope stability analysis. Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation: Transportation Research Board Special Report, v.247, p.391-425.
  12. Park, H.J. and West, T.R. (2001) Development of a probabilistic approach for rock wedge failure. Engineering Geology, v.59, p.233-251.
  13. Park, H.J., West, T.R. and Woo, I. (2005) Probabilistic analysis of rock slope stability and random properties of discontinuity parameters, Interstate Highway 40, Western North Carolina, USA. Engineering Geology, v.79, p.230-250.
  14. Park, H.J., Um, J.G. and Woo, I. (2008) The evaluation of failure probability for rock slope based on fuzzy set theory and Monte Carlo simulation. In Proceedings of the 10th international symposium on landslides and engineered slopes, p.1943-1949.
  15. Park, S.H., Lee, S.G., Lee, B.K. and Kim, C.h. (2015) A Study on Reliability of Joint Orientation Measurements in Rock Slope using 3D Laser Scanner. Tunnel and Underground Space, v.25, p.97-106.
  16. Park, H.J., Lee, J.H., Kim, K.M. and Um, J.G. (2016) Assessment of rock slope stability using GIS-based probabilistic kinematic analysis. Engineering Geology, v.203, p.56-69.
  17. Park, H.J. (2007) Cheater10, Probabilistic analysis method, Slope engineering, Korean society for rock mechanics and rock engineering, Gunsulbook, p.261-285.
  18. Sturzenegger, M. and Stead, D. (2009) Close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for discontinuity characterization on rock cuts. Engineering Geology, v.106, p.163-182.
  19. Tatone, B.S. and Grasselli, G (2010) ROCKTOPPLE: A spreadsheet-based program for probabilistic blocktoppling analysis. Computers & Geosciences, v.36, p.98-114.
  20. Terzaghi, R.D. (1965) Sources of error in joint surveys. Geotechnique, v.15, p.287-304.
  21. Wyllie, D.C. and Mah, C.W. (2004) Rock Slope Engineering: Civil and Mining, 4th ed., Spon Press, 431p.
  22. Zhou, X., Chen, J., Chen, Y., Song, S., Shi, M. and Zhan, J. (2017) Bayesian-based probabilistic kinematic analysis of discontinuity-controlled rock slope instabilities. Bulletin of engineering geology and the environment, v.76, p.1249-1262.