Optimization of the Fermentation Period of Lightly Salted Oiji (Traditional Korean Cucumber Pickles)

저염 오이지의 최적 발효기간에 대한 연구

Kim, Gumjung;Yang, Jiwon;Lee, Kyunghee

  • Received : 2019.03.05
  • Accepted : 2019.06.10
  • Published : 2019.06.30


To optimize the fermentation period of lightly salted Oiji, 3% salt was added to cucumbers that were fermented at $27{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 days, after which their physical properties (moisture content, salinity, pH, acidity, hardness) and sensory characteristics (acceptance test, difference test) were evaluated. The moisture content was highest at day 6. Hardness slowly increased as fermentation time increased, but not significantly. The pH was highest after 3 days of fermentation, and tended to decrease as fermentation time increased, with the largest drop occurring between 4 and 5 days, and the lowest pH occurring between 6 and 7 days. Acidity was lowest after day 3 of fermentation and highest after day 7. Acidity tended to increase as fermentation period lengthened. The L-value tended to decrease as salt concentration increased. The a-value declined from day 3 to day 5, then increased significantly by day 7. The b-value was highest after 7 days, with a tendency to increase as the fermentation progressed. Acceptance test results were highest for taste and overall acceptance after 5 days of fermentation. The difference test showed that the optimal lightly salted Oiji fermentation period was approximately 5 days. These results indicate that lightly salted Oiji fermented for 5 days produced the highest acceptance.


lightly salted Oiji;fermentation period;physicochemical characteristics;sensory characteristics


  1. AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official analytical chemists. IWashington DC.
  2. Choi HS, Kim JG, Kim WJ. 1989. Effect of heat treatment on some qualities of Korean pickled cucumbers during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 88(6): 845-850
  3. Choi HS, Ku KH, Kim HG, Kim WJ. 1990. Combined effect of salts mixture addition and brining in hot solution on the Korean pickle fermentation. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 22(7): 865-870
  4. Choi SA, Cho MS. 2012. Changes in quality characteristics of eggplant pickles by salt content and drying time during storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 27(2): 211-224
  5. Daeschel MA, Henry P, Fleming HP. 1984. Selection of lactic acid bacteria for use in vegetable Fermentations. Food Microbiology, Academic Press Inc., USA, pp. 306-308
  6. Han BR, Cho JS. 2005. Effect of pulsatilla Koreana on the quality characteristics of Oiji (Korean Pickled Cucumbers). J. East Asian Dietary Life, 15(3): 323-333
  7. Han BR. 1999. 100 Kimchi we need to know. Hyunamsa, Korea, pp 10
  8. Huh YJ, Lee HS. 1990. Effects of preheating and salt concentration on texture of cucumber Kimchi during fFermentation. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 6(2): 1-6
  9. Jeong YJ, Seo KI, Lee GD, Youn KS, Kang MH, Kim KS. 1998. Monitoring for the fermentation conditions of sweet persimmon vinegar using response surface methodology. J. East Asian Dietary Life, 8(1): 57-65
  10. Jun HJ, Lee HJ. 1996. Western food. Gyomunsa, Korea, pp 296
  11. Jung SJ. 1990 Korean cooking. Sinkwang, Korea, pp 41-42
  12. Jung ST, Lee HY, Park HJ. 1995. The Acidity pH salt content and sensory scores change in Oyijangachi manufacturing. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 24(4): 606-612
  13. Kang IH, Lee KB. 1984. The dietary customs of Korea. Samyoungsa, Korea, pp 44-54
  14. Kim BS, Kang ST, Park KH, Hur JW. 1999. Studies on the development of processed foods of greenhouse horticultural commodities in the south area - (1) Effect of brine concentration on the quality of cucumber pickle. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 28(2): 390-395
  15. Kim CH, Yang YH, Lee KJ, Park WS, Kim MR. 2005. Quality characteristics of pickled cucumber prepared with dry salting methods during storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 34(5): 721-728
  16. Kim JA, Cho MS. 2009. Quality changes of immature green cherry tomato pickles with different concentration of soy sauce and soaking temperature during storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 24(3): 295-307
  17. Kim JE. 2001. Effect of processing methods on quality of cucumber pickles. Master's degree thesis Chungju National University, Korea, pp 2-3
  18. Kim JG, Choi HS, Kim SS, Kim WJ. 1989. Changes in physicochemical and sensory qualities of Korean pickled cucumbers during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 21(6): 838-844
  19. Lee JS. 1975. Effect of soaking methods on taste and vitamin C of Korean pickled cucumbers. Song Sim Research Journal, 6: 185-190
  20. McFeeters RF, Senter MM, Fleming HP. 1989. Softening effects of monovalent cations in acidified cucumber mesocap tissue. J. Food Sci., 54(2): 366-370
  21. Park HW, Kim DM. 2000. Effect of packaging films on quality of 'Chuichung' cucumbers during storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 29(2): 248-251
  22. Park MW, Park YK. 1998. Changes of physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Oiji (Korean pickled cucumbers) prepared with different salts. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 27(3): 419-424
  23. Park MW, Park YK, Jang MS. 1994. Changes of Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Korean Pickled Cucumber with Different Preparation Methods. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 23(4): 634-640
  24. Park MW, Park YK, Jang MS. 1995. Changes in pectic substances of Korean pickled cucumbers with different preparation methods. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 24(1): 133-140
  25. Shim YH, Yoo CH, Cha GH. 2001. Quality changes of Oiji with various antimicrobial ingredients during fermentation. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 17(4): 329-337
  26. Sunjae. 2005. Temple food of Sunjae monk. Designhouse, Korea, pp 34-3
  27. Ute R, Wernel B. 1987. Microwave pasteurization, sterilization, blanching and pest control in the food industry. Food Technol., 41(6): 92-102
  28. Yoon S, Lee JS, Hong WS. 1989. Effect of different processes on texture of fermented cucumber pickles. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 4(1): 103-108
  29. Yoon SS. 1988. History of Korea Kimchi. Korean J. Food Cook Sci., 4(1): 89-95
  30. Yoon SS. 1991. Historical review of Korea Kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult., 6(4): 467-477