A Study on Dietary Behaviors and Nutritional Knowledge Related Sodium Intake of High School Students in Incheon

인천지역 고등학생의 나트륨 섭취 관련 식행동 및 영양지식 평가

Kim, Ji-Hye;Kim, Myung-Hee;Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Mi-Hyun

  • Received : 2018.12.20
  • Accepted : 2019.04.09
  • Published : 2019.06.30


The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary behavior and nutritional knowledge related to sodium intake in high school students. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 400 high school students (200 boys) in Incheon, Korea. Survey data were analyzed according to gender and degree of obesity. The distribution of the degree of obesity was the highest in 231 normal weight individuals (57.8%), followed by 89 underweight (22.3%), 41 overweight (10.3%), and 39 obese (9.8%). The sodium-related undesirable dietary behavior score was 2.9 points out of 5 points. The detailed dietary behavior scores of 'I eat kimchi when I eat instant noodles or noodles' and 'I like dried fish with salt' were significantly higher in boys than in girls (p<0.05). It was found that boys consumed more frequently high sodium foods, such as pizza, hamburger, and hotdog than girls. According to the degree of obesity, the underweight group consumed more kimchi fried rice and potato chips frequently than the other groups (p<0.05). Preference for salty taste was not significantly different among the groups by gender and degree of obesity. Sodium-related nutritional knowledge score was 5.3 points out of 10 and which was significantly higher in girls or normal weight group than in boys or obesity group. These results suggest that nutritional education on sodium intake is needed because the nutritional knowledge of adolescents is relatively low. Moreover, intensive nutritional guidance is required, especially in boys or adolescents with undesirable degree of obesity.


Sodium intake;dietary behavior;nutritional knowledge;high school student


  1. Ahn Y, Kim KW, Kim K, Pyun J, Yeo I, Nam K. 2015. Nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy of childcare center foodservice employees by stages of behavioral change in reducing sodium intake. J. Nutr Health, 48(5):429-440
  2. Bae YK, Kim Y. 2016. Fast foods intake of highschool students in Daejeon area-Hamburger, pizza, and fried chicken intake. Korean Home Economics Education Association, 28(2):41-50
  3. Bedford JL, Barr SI. 2011. Higher urinary sodium, a proxy for intake, is associated with increased calcium excretion and lower hip bone density in healthy young women with lower calcium intakes. Nutrients, 3(11):951-961
  4. Cho HS, Ahn MS. 1993. A survey on the consumption patterns of ramyon by high school students in a part Chun-nam area. J. Living Culture Research, 7(1):43-55
  5. Cho HK, Kim MH. 2010. Dietary behavior and nutrient intake in university female students according to taste preference. J. Korean Diet. Assoc., 16(2):100-115
  6. Cho YJ, Kim MH, Kim MH, Choi MK. 2014. Night eating habits of middle school students in Gyeonggi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 43(2):300-308
  7. Cheong SH, Chang KJ. 2005. Regional differences in taste and food preferences of college students attending nutritional education via internet I. Main and side dishes. Korean J. Community Nutr., 10(6):845-859
  8. Chung EJ, Shim EG. 2008. Salt-related dietary behaviors and sodium intakes of university students in Gyeonggi-do. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 37(5):578-588
  9. De Wardener H, MacGregor G. 2002. Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension. J. Hum. Hypertens., 16(4):213-223
  10. Jung J. 2016. Policy trends of sodium reduction. Food Science and Industry, 49(2):2-7
  11. Jung KA. 2009. A study on the trends of researches on problems related to eating behaviors of elementary school students. J. Korean Practical Arts Education 22(3):161-196
  12. Koo HJ, Kim SY. 2015. Awareness of processed foods and chronic disease in high school students in Yongin area. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 44(1):76-84
  13. Lee JS, Kim JS, Hong KH, Jang YA, Park SH, Sohn YA, Chung HR. 2009. A comparison of food and nutrient intakes between instant noodle consumers and non-consumers among Korean children and adolescents. Korean J., Nutr 42(8):723-731
  14. Lee KH, Lee SS, Kim YK, Lee KA. 2012. The preference, knowledge and intake of sodium in different grade of elementary school students. J. Korean Practical Arts Education, 25(4):41-58
  15. Lee SK, Choi MK, Kim MH. 2019. Study on middle and high school students's use of convenience foods at convenience stores in Incheon. Korean J. Community Nutr., 24(2):137-15
  16. Lee SS. 2001. The effect of taste preference on anthropometric measurements and nutrient intakes in children. Korean J. Community Nutr., 6(2):130-138
  17. Lee SS, Oh SH. 1997. Prevalence of obesity and eating habits of elementary school students in Kwangju. Korean J. Community Nutr., 2(4):486-495
  18. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. 2005. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol. Rev., 85(2):679-715
  19. Ministry of Education. 2018. Statistical analysis of student health examination sample in 2017, p10
  20. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018. Korea Health Statistics 2017: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-2). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pp 167-168
  21. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017. Korea Health Statistics 2016 I: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-1). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p 178
  22. Moon H, Yoon JS. 2016. High sodium intake behaviors and recognition of low sodium diet practice among middle school students. J. Living Science Research, 42:35-47
  23. Moon HO, Rho JO. 2017. Correlation analysis of sodium-related knowledge, dietary behavior, attitudes towards a low-salt diet and meal attitude guidance for elementary school teachers in Jeonbuk area. J. Nutr. Health, 50(2):180-191
  24. Pae MK. 2016. Dietary Habits and Perception Toward Food Additives according to the Frequency of Consumption of Convenience Food at Convenience Stores among University Students in Cheongju. Korean J. Community Nutr., 21(2):140-151
  25. Pak HO, Hong MS, Sohn CY. 2015. Survey on nutrition knowledge, food behaviors, and food frequency of sodium intake in Korean university students. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life, 25(1):12-19
  26. Park YS, Son SM, Lim WJ, Kim SB, Chung YS. 2008. Comparison of dietary behaviors related to sodium intake by gender and age. Korean J. Community Nutr., 13(1):1-12
  27. Posner I, Leitner LA, Lester D. 1994. Diet, cigarette smoking, stressful life event, and subjective feeling stress. Psychol. Rep., 74(3):841-842
  28. Shin GN, Kim YR, Kim MH. 2017. Nutritional Evaluation of Convenience Meals in Convenience Stores near the Universities. Korean J. Community Nutr., 22(5):375-386
  29. Sung SH, Yu OK, Sohn HS, Cha YS. 2007. A comparison of dietary behaviors according to gender and obesity status of middle school students in Jeonju. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 36(8):995-1009
  30. World Health Organization. 2000. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. p 18
  31. World Health Organization. 2012. Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization
  32. Yon M, Lee Y, Kim D, Lee J, Koh E, Nam E, Shin H, Kang BW, Kim JW, Heo S, Cho HY, Kim CI. 2011. Major sources of sodium intake of the Korean population at prepared dish level-based on the KNHANES 2008 & 2009. Korean J. Community Nutr., 16(4):473-487
  33. Yoon EK. 2015. Policy trends of sodium reduction. Food Industry and Nutrition, 20(2):6-7
  34. Yoo JE, Park GS. 2003. A study of the dietary behavior and food preference of adolescents. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life, 13(1):19-24