- Volume 29 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Improvement of Vegetation Cooling Effects in BioCAS for Better Estimation of Daily Maximum Temperature during Heat Waves - In Case of the Seoul Metropolitan Area -
식생냉각효과 적용을 통한 BioCAS의 폭염기간 일 최고기온 추정 개선 - 서울 및 수도권지역을 중심으로 -
Lee, Hankyung;Yi, Chaeyeon;Kim, Kyu Rang;Cho, Changbum
- Received : 2019.03.14
- Accepted : 2019.05.31
- Published : 2019.06.30
On the urban scale, Micro-climate analysis models for urban scale have been developed to investigate the atmospheric characteristics in urban surface in detail and to predict the micro-climate change due to the changes in urban structure. BioCAS (Biometeorological Climate Impact Assessment System) is a system that combines such analysis models and has been implemented internally in the Korea Meteorological Administration. One of role in this system is the analysis of the health impact by heat waves in urban area. In this study, the vegetation cooling models A and B were developed and linked with BioCAS and evaluated by the temperature drop at the vegetation areas during ten selected heat-wave days. Smaller prediction errors were found as a result of applying the vegetation cooling models to the heat-wave days. In addition, it was found that the effects of the vegetation cooling models produced different results according to the distribution of vegetation area in land cover near each observation site - the improvement of the model performance on temperature analysis was different according to land use at each location. The model A was better fitted where the surrounding vegetation ratio was 50% or more, whereas the model B was better where the vegetation ratio was less than 50% (higher building and impervious areas). Through this study, it should be possible to select an appropriate vegetation cooling model according to its fraction coverage so that the temperature analysis around built-up areas would be improved.
BioCAS;heat-wave days;vegetation cooling effect;tall vegetation;urban climate
- An, S. M., S. Kim, H. Lee, and E. Y. Son, 2016: Urban microclimate management directions. KRIHS Policy Brief, 583, 1-6.
- Back, S.-Y., S.-W. Kim, M.-I. Jung, J.-W. Roh, and S.-W. Son, 2018: Classification of heat wave events in Seoul using self-organizing map. Journal of Climate Change Research, 9, 209-221, doi:10.15531/ksccr.2018.9.3.209 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.15531/KSCCR.2018.9.3.209
- Bokaie, M., M. K. Zarkesh, P. D. Arasteh, and A. Hosseini, 2016: Assessment of urban heat island based on the relationship between land surface temperature and land use/ land cover in Tehran. Sustainable Cities and Society, 23, 94-104, doi:10.1016/j.scs.2016.03.009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.03.009
- Choi, T.-Y., J.-G. Cha, H.-G. Moon, S.-M. Lee, and D.-I. Kang, 2017: Analysis of the effects of temperature mitigation on urban green area using UAV images. Proc. Korean Soc. Environ. Ecol. Con., 27, 69-70. [Available online at http://db.koreascholar.com/article.aspx?code=324977] (in Korean).
- Christen, A., and R. Vogt, 2004: Energy and radiation balance of a central European city. Int. J. Climatol., 24, 1395-1421. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1074
- Coutts, A. M., R. J. Harris, T. Phan, S. J. Livesley, N. S. G. Williams, and N. J. Tapper, 2016: Thermal infrared remote sensing of urban heat: Hotspots, vegetation, and an assessment of techniques for use in urban planning. Remote Sens. Environ., 186, 637-651, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.09.007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.09.007
- Cui, Y. Y., and B. Foy, 2012: Seasonal variations of the urban heat island at the surface and the near-surface and reductions due to urban vegetation in Mexico City. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 855-868, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0104.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0104.1
- Eum, J. H., 2012: Review of environmental assessment for climate factors in urban planning, Korea Environment Institute, 11, 27-48 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Eum, J. H., D. Scherer, U. Fehrenbach, and J.-H. Woo, 2011: Development of an urban landcover classification scheme suitable for representing climatic conditions in a densely built-up Asian megacity. Landscape and Urban Plan., 103, 362-371, doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.08.010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.08.010
- Eum, J. H., J.-M. Son, K.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Park, 2018: Management strategies of ventilation paths for improving thermal environment (A case study of Gimhae, South Korea). Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies, 21, 115-127, doi:10.11108/kagis.2018.21.1.115.
- Gross, G., 2014: On the parametrization of urban land use in mesoscale models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 150, 319-326, doi:10.1007/s10546-013-9863-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-013-9863-5
- Gouma, V., 2013: Comparisons of air temperature summer conditions between an urban forest park and its surrounding built-up area with their nearby mountainous forest, in the greater Athens Area, Greece. In C. Helmis et al. Eds., Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 471-477, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29172-2_67.
- Imhoff, M. L., P. Zhang, R. E. Wolfe, and L. Bounoua, 2010: Remote sensing of the urban heat island effect across biomes in the continental USA. Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 504-513, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.008
- Jaenicke, B., A. Holtmann, K. R. Kim, M. Kang, U. Fehrenbach, and D. Scherer, 2019: Quantification and evaluation of intra-urban heat-stress variability in Seoul, Korea. Int. J. Biometeorol., 63, 1-12, doi:10.1007/s00484-018-1631-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1631-2
- Kim, K., J.-Y. Yoon, H.-J. Kwon, J.-H. Han, J. E. Son, S.-W. Nam, G. A. Giacomelli, and I.-B. Lee, 2008: 3-D CFD analysis of relative humidity distribution in greenhouse with a fog cooling system and refrigerative dehumidifiers. Biosyst. Eng., 100, 245-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2008.03.006
- Kim, H.-O., and J.-M. Yeom, 2012: Effect of the urban land cover types on the surface temperature: Case study of Ilsan new city. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 203-214, doi:10.7780/kjrs.2012.28.2.203 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.7780/kjrs.2012.28.2.203
- Kim, K. R., C. Yi, J.-S. Lee, F. Meier, B. Jaenicke, U. Fehrenbach, and D. Scherer, 2014: BioCAS: Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System for buildingscale impact assessment of heat-stress related mortality. DIE ERDE-Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin, 145, 62-79.
- Kim, K. R., J.-S. Lee, C. Yi, B.-J. Kim, B. Jänicke, A. Holtmann, and D. Scherer, 2016: Evaluation of health impact of heat waves using bio-climatic impact assessment system (BioCAS) at building scale over the Seoul city area. J. Environ. Impact Assess, 25, 514-524, doi:10.14249/eia.2016.25.6.514 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.14249/eia.2016.25.6.514
- Kim, H., K. Oh, and S.-J. Lee, 2018: The effects of green and cool roofs on temperature reduction in Seoul using a mesoscale meteorological model (WRFARW). Seoul City Research, 19, 39-57.
- Koo, H.-J., Y.-H. Kim, and B.-C. Choi, 2007: A study on the change of the urban heat island structure in Seoul. J. Climate Res., 2, 67-78 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Kwon, H.-G., H.-J. Yang, C. Yi, Y.-H. Kim, and Y.-J. Choi, 2015: Urban climate impact assessment reflecting urban planning scenarios - connecting green network across the north and south in Seoul. Journal of the Environmental Impact Assessment, 24, 134-153, doi:10.14249/eia.2015.24.2.134. https://doi.org/10.14249/eia.2015.24.2.134
- Lee, E. Y., S. K. Moon, and S. R. Shim, 1996: A study on the effect of air temperature and ground temperature mitigation from several arrangements of urban green. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, 24, 1065-1078 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Lee, H., and Coauthors, 2018a: The quantitative analysis of cooling effect by urban forests in summer. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 20, 73-87, doi:10.5532/KJAFM.2018.20.1.73 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Lee, H., C. Yi, J.-S. Lee, and K. R. Kim, 2018b: Analysis on the cooling effect of vegetation in the Seoul metropolitan area by using BioCAS. Proc., 2018 Korean Meteorological Society Fall Meeting, JeJu, Korea, Korean Meteorological Society, 355.
- Lee, J., Y.-G. Lee, and B.-J. Kim, 2016: Analysis of the thermal environment around an urban green area in Seoul, Korea Using Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS). Atmosphere, 26, 413-421 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.14191/Atmos.2016.26.3.413
- Loughner, C. P., D. J. Allen, D.-L. Zhang, K. E. Pickering, R. R. Dickerson, and L. Landry, 2012: Roles of urban tree canopy and buildings in urban heat island effects: Parameterization and preliminary results. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 1775-1793, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0228.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0228.1
- Masson, V., 2006: Urban surface modeling and the meso-scale impact of cities. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 84, 35-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-005-0142-3
- Maimaitiyiming, M., A. Ghulam, T. Tiyip, F. Pla, P. Latorre-Carmona, U. Halik, and M. Caetano, 2014: Effects of green space spatial pattern on land surface temperature: Implications for sustainable urban planning and climate change adaptation. ISPRS J. Photogramm., 89, 59-66, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2013.12.010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2013.12.010
- NIMS, 2017: The study on the analysis of cooling effect by tall vegetation and cold air flow using BioCAS. Research and Development for KMA Applied Meteorology Services - Advanced Research on Biometeorology, 106 pp.
- Nishimoto, T., T. Tashiro, Y. Hashimoto, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Kikegawa, Y. Ohashi, and T. Ihara, 2018: Development and verification of urban canopy - building energy coupled model considered multiple building types. Proceeding of the International Conference of Urban Climate, New York, USA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83.
- Norton, B. A., A. M. Coutts, S. J. Livesley, R. J. Harris, A. M. Hunter, and N. S. G. Williams, 2015: Planning for cooler cities: A framework to prioritise green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan., 134, 127-138, doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.018
- Oh, K. S., and J. J. Hong, 2005: The relationship between urban spatial elements and the urban heat island effect. J. Urban Design Institute of Korea, 6, 47-63 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Park, S.-J., and J.-J. Kim, 2014: Effects of building-roof cooling on scalar dispersion in urban street canyons. Atmosphere, 24, 331-341 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.3.331
- Resler, J., and Coauthors, 2018: An urban surface scheme for the urban microscale model PALM-4U - model development and first validation. Proceeding, 10th International Conference of Urban Climate. 14th Symposium on the Urban Environment, New York, 12D.8.
- Santamouris, M., 2014: Cooling the cities-a review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Solar Energy, 103, 682-703, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2012.07.003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.07.003
- Susca, T., S. R. Gaffin, and G. R. Dell'Osso, 2011: Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2119-2126, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.007
- Trimmel, H., J. Kreutziger, G. Fertsak, R. Fitzka, M. Dittrich, and W. G. Voelckel, 2011: Use of the airtraq laryngoscope for emergency intubation in the prehospital setting: a randomized control trial. Crit. Care Med., 39, 489-493, doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206b69b. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206b69b
- Wang, Y., U. Berardi, and H. Akbari, 2016: Comparing the effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies for Toronto, Canada. Energy and Buildings, 114, 2-19, doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.046
- Yi, C., J.-H., Eum, Y.-J. Choi, K.-R. Kim, D. Scherer, U. Fehrenbach, and G.-H. Kim, 2011: Development of Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) Maps Based on Landuse and Meteorological Model, Journal of Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies, 14, 12-25 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.11108/kagis.2011.14.1.012
- Yi, C., K. R. Kim, S. M. An, Y.-J. Choi, A. Holtmann, B. Jaenicke, U. Fehrenbach, and D. Scherer, 2016a: Estimating spatial patterns of air temperature at building-resolving spatial resolution in Seoul, Korea. Int. J. Climatol., 36, 533-549, doi:10.1002/joc.4363. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4363
- Yi, C., S. M. An, K. R. Kim, H.-G. Kwon, and J.-S. Min, 2016b: Surface micro-climate analysis based on urban morphological characteristics: Temperature deviation estimation and evaluation. Atmosphere, 26, 445-459 (in Korean with English abstract). https://doi.org/10.14191/Atmos.2016.26.3.445
- Yi, C., Y. Shin, and S. M. An, 2017: A study on a comparison of sky view factors and a correlation with air temperature in the city. Atmosphere, 27, 483-498 (in Korean with English abstract).
- Yi, C., Y. Shin, and J.-W. Roh, 2018: Development of an urban high-resolution air temperature forecast system for local weather information services based on statistical downscaling. Atmosphere, 9, 164, doi:10.3390/atmos9050164. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050164
- Youngsteadt, E., A. F. Ernst, R. R. Dunn, and S. D. Frank, 2017: Responses of arthropod populations to warming depend on latitude: evidence from urban heat islands. Global Change Biology, 23, 1436-1447, doi:10.1111/gcb.13550. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13550
Grant : 기상업무 지원기술개발연구
Supported by : 국립기상과학원