Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles

  • Kim, Sung Jin (Graduate School of Forensic Science, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Hong, Sungwook (Graduate School of Forensic Science, Soonchunhyang University)
  • Received : 2019.04.24
  • Accepted : 2019.05.31
  • Published : 2019.06.25


Enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles by using p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), which react with urea, and ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), 1,2-indanedione/zinc (1,2-IND/Zn), which react with amino acid, was studied. As a result of comparing the application methods of reagents, the ninhydrin and the 1,2-IND/Zn were suitable for application with spray method, which is spray directly on footwear impression, DFO and DMAC were suitable for application with dry contact method, which is applying heat with press to DMAC impregnated paper on footwear impression. In addition, DMAC applied with dry contact method showed best contrast and enhancement result in both white and black colored tiles by comparing of the sensitivity by different dilution ratio of urine and the aging time of footwear impressions in urine. And the result of applied with DMAC (with dry contact method) on the floor tiles collected at various places in a building's men's and women's bathrooms, it can be successfully enhanced that footwear impressions in urine. So it is believed that the method can be used to recover footwear impressions in urine from real crime scenes.


p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde;footwear impressions in urine;enhancement;dry contact method


Supported by : Soonchunhyang University


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