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Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles

  • Kim, Sung Jin (Graduate School of Forensic Science, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Hong, Sungwook (Graduate School of Forensic Science, Soonchunhyang University)
  • Received : 2019.04.24
  • Accepted : 2019.05.31
  • Published : 2019.06.25

Abstract

Enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles by using p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), which react with urea, and ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), 1,2-indanedione/zinc (1,2-IND/Zn), which react with amino acid, was studied. As a result of comparing the application methods of reagents, the ninhydrin and the 1,2-IND/Zn were suitable for application with spray method, which is spray directly on footwear impression, DFO and DMAC were suitable for application with dry contact method, which is applying heat with press to DMAC impregnated paper on footwear impression. In addition, DMAC applied with dry contact method showed best contrast and enhancement result in both white and black colored tiles by comparing of the sensitivity by different dilution ratio of urine and the aging time of footwear impressions in urine. And the result of applied with DMAC (with dry contact method) on the floor tiles collected at various places in a building's men's and women's bathrooms, it can be successfully enhanced that footwear impressions in urine. So it is believed that the method can be used to recover footwear impressions in urine from real crime scenes.

Keywords

p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde;footwear impressions in urine;enhancement;dry contact method

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Fig. 1. Performance comparison of the spray, tissue, and dry contact method on the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on white tiles. (a) Control (b) Spray method (c) Tissue method (d) Dry contact method

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Fig. 2. Variation of the average grading when the footwear impressions in urine on white and black tiles were enhanced by spray, tissue and dry contact method.

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Fig. 3. The enhancement results of footwear impressions in diluted urine deposited on the surface of white (top) and black (bottom) tiles. (A) Ninhydrin, (B) DFO, (C) 1,2-IND/Zn, (D) DMAC

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Fig. 4. Comparison of sensitivity of urine sensitive reagents for the enhancement of footwear impression in urine.

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Fig. 5. Changes in the grading of the footwear impressions in urine over time.

Table 1. The grading system to determine the degree of enhancement of footwear impressions in urine

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Table 2. The number of footwear impressions in urine recovered from the floor tiles in men's and women' bathroom

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Soonchunhyang University

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